Timeline of Philatelic Literature, 1830 - 1875

Books, catalogues, periodicals, articles, etc.

Don Heller, 20 February 2018






Quick Links
1500  1600  1700  1750  1800  1810
1820  1821  1822  1823  1824  1825  1826  1827  1828  1829
1830  1831  1832  1833  1834  1835  1836  1837  1838  1839
1840  1841  1842  1843  1844  1845  1846  1847  1848  1849
1850  1851  1852  1853  1854  1855  1856  1857  1858  1859
1860  1861  1862  1863  1864  1865  1866  1867  1868  1869
1870  1871  1872  1873  1874  1875  1876 and later
References and working notes

British Almanac, 1828 - 1875; Companion to the Almanac, 1828 - 1875
Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, 1800 - 1875
Report of the [British] Postmaster General, 1855 - 1875
British Postal Guide, 1856 - 1875

Report of the [US] Postmaster General, 1823 - 1875
US Post Office, 1789 to 1875, additional resources
Congressional Statutes, Resolutions, Treaties
Official Register of the United States
Postmasters General
more, in preparation
Worldwide, to 1875, additional resources
First Issues
more, in preparation



1820's and earlier
1830's
1840's
1850's

1860's

1870's





Abbreviations, for references and links

General-interest libraries and digital collections

Philatelic libraries, museums, societies and journals

Anthologies and digital collections
References to other compilations
Notes on various topics
Copyright and Intellectual Property Notice
Surveys
Complaints
Before proceeding further, may I be allowed a complaint or two or three?  The projects initiated by Google and Microsoft, which led to Google Books, the Internet Archive and HathiTrust, have produced some remarkable results.  "Scan all the books, and put them on the Web" was, and remains, a great concept.  But, the execution is sometimes far short of the goal.  The following are links to some egregious examples.




1500-1599   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)
The postal service for the Holy Roman Empire was entrusted to Franz von Taxis, in 1497.  The Thurn und Taxis post survived until 1867.  For a summary, see Wikipedia, Thurn und Taxis,
Richard Rowlands [Richard Verstegan], The post for diuers partes of the world to trauaile from one notable Citie unto an other, with a descripcion of the antiquitie of diuers famous Cities in Europe, London : Thomas East, 1576, [24] + 112 p.




1600-1699   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)
Frankfurter Ober-Post-Amts-Zeitung, Frankfurt : Thurn und Taxis, published from 1615 to 17 July 1866; more details. The newspaper Frankfurter Postzeitung was closed when the Prussian army captured the Free City of Frankfurt in the Austrian-Prussian (Seven Weeks) war of 1866.
Carte géographique des postes qui traversent la France, Paris, 1632.
  • http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b84467206
  • This is the earliest post road map.  Nicolas Sanson was the cartographer, Melchior Tavernier was the publisher.  Sanson's sons went into a partnership with Alexis Hubert Jaillot, who republished this map and others.  Jaillot's family later published the Liste générale des postes de France from 1706 to 1779 (see below).
Carte particulière des postes de France, Paris : H. Jaillot.
See also, Antique Post Route Maps [Paulus Swaen]

There were three services available in France,
  • postes aux chevaux - the service which carried passengers, also parcels, letters and packets
  • postes aux lettres - the service which carried letters and packets
  • messageries - the service which carried parcels
For a 1790 proposal to merge these services, see Saint-Victour.

Until about 1820 or so, "postes" should generally be taken to mean postes aux chevaux, and afterward to mean postes aux lettres.  See, for example, Patrick Marchand, Voyager en France au temps de la poste aux chevaux, http://www.laposte.fr/chp/mediasPdf/PMarchand.pdf
The Royal Post was opened to the public in 1635 by King Charles I of England, primarily as a revenue source.  From 1653 to 1677, the Post Office was "farmed out", whereby the government received an up-front payment, and the concessionaire was allowed to keep all further revenues.
The Paris local post, as organized by M. de Villayer, or de Vélayer, opened Aug. 1653, closed within months, and was soon forgotten.  Printed wrappers (billets de port payé) were used to indicate prepayment of postage; none have survived in the original.  Post boxes were installed throughout the city, but some became trash receptacles or homes for rats.  Memory of the local post was revived in the pamphlet by Piron, 1838 (see below).
  • Jean Loret, La Muze historique, Paris, 1658, Livre 4, p. 95, Lettre trentième, du xvi Aoust [1653] (link).
    • "On va bien-tôt métre en pratique / Pour la commodité publique, / Un certain établissement, / (Mais c'est pour Paris seulement) / ... / Et si l'on veut sçavoir combien / Coûtera le port d'une Lettre, / (Choze qu'il ne faut pas obmettre) / Afin que nul n'y soit trompé, / Ce ne sera qu'un sou tapé."
    • 1857, ed. J. Ravenal, V. De La Pelouze, vol. 1, p. 399 (link).
  • Gédéon Tallement des Réaux, Les Historiettes, has some biographical information about Villayer, but nothing important for the Paris post.
    • first written about 1657-1659, first published 1834, many other editions since then
    • vol. 4, 1834, p. 340 (link); vol. 6, 1835, p. 32-3 (link).
    • vol. 6, 1857, p. 58 (link); vol. 7, 1858, p. 441-2 (link).
  • Arthur de Rothschild, Histoire de la poste aux lettres et du timbre-poste depuis leurs origines jusqu'a nos jours, Paris, 1880, p. 98-112 (link).
  • Alexis Belloc, Les postes françaises: recherches historiques sur leur origine, leur développement, leur législation, Paris, 1886, p. 86-92 (link).
  • Joan deJean, How Paris Became Paris: The Invention of the Modern City, 2014, p. 123-125 (link).
    • p. 246 (link) has references to the archival materials in Paris, and to the Scudéry-Pellisson correspondence which employed the local post.
  • Wikipedia (English), Jean-Jacques Renouard de Villayer; (French), Jean-Jacques Renouard de Villayer.
Instruction pour ceux qui voudront escrire d'un quartier de Paris en un autre, et avoir response promptement deux et trois fois le jour sans y envoyer personne, par le moyen de l'establissement que Sa Majesté a permis estre faict par ses lettres, vérifiées au Parlement, pour la commodité du public et expédition des affaires, Paris, 1653 [10 June], 4 p.
  • F.-A. Quinet, Essai de Bibliographie postale, 1906, p. 3 (link).
  • Reprinted, identical facsimile, by Pierre Mahe, 1873 (ref).
    • -- Crawford Catalogue Supplement, col. 76; British Library shelfmark Crawford 909 (4).
  • Reprinted, identical facsimile, by A. Maury, 1877.
    • -- Crawford Catalogue, col. 406; British Library shelfmark Crawford 872 (9).
  • Reprinted, Rothschild, Histoire, 1880, between p. 98 and 101 (link).
  • Transcribed, Belloc, Postes, 1886, p. 88-90 (link).
John Hill, A Penny Post: or, a Vindication of the Liberty and Birthright of every Englishman, in Carrying Merchants & other men's Letters, against any restraint of Farmers of such Employments, London, 1659, 8 p.
  • For more about this item, see Rowland Hill and George Birkbeck Hill, The Life of Sir Rowland Hill and the History of Penny Postage, 1880, vol. 2, p. 29 (link).  Hill refers to Henry B. Wheatley, Post-Office Reforms, The Academy, Dec. 27, 1879, vol. 16, p. 463-465 (link).  See also, Howard Robinson, The British Post Office, 1948, p. 43-44.
  • John Hill was not related to Rowland Hill, nor did Rowland Hill know of John Hill until May 1845.  The real importance of this item is that Rowland Hill obtained a manuscript copy of the pamphlet from "my friend Dr. Gray" at the British Museum in 1845.  This friendship (if Hill was not simply being polite) was tested in 1862 when Gray's first postage stamp catalogue was published.
    • When did Rowland Hill first meet Dr. John Edward Gray, and in what circumstances?  Was their association continued, and if so, how frequently did they meet?
An Act for erecting and establishing a post-office, London, 1660, 143 p. 
  • -- ESTC, http://estc.bl.uk/R475123, http://estc.bl.uk/R475087
  • -- EEBO
  • Public General Acts, 12 Charles II c. 35.
  • Statutes at Large, Pickering's edition, vol. 7, p. 504-512 (link, ex- M.D. Hill).
  • Statutes of the Realm, vol. 5, p. 297-301 (link, link).
  • On closing the Parliament's session and delivering the Money Bills, 29 Dec. 1660, the Speaker of House of Commons stated
    • Another [bill] is intituled, "An Act for erecting and establishing a Post-office; and this, being likewise legally settled, will be of very great Use to all Your Majesty's People, and especially Your Merchants, for holding Intelligence with their Correspondents, Factors, and Agents, in Foreign Parts.  Literæ sunt Indices Animi; and without the safe and speedy Dispatch and Conveyance of their Letters, they will never be able to time their Business, nor carry on their Trades to an equal Advantage with the Merchants of other Countries.

The first Postmaster General under the Act of 1660 was Henry Bishop (1660-63); he is credited with the invention of dated postmarks.

From his Majesties General Post-Office in London.  Notice is hereby given unto all gentlemen, merchants, traders, and others, that Henry Bishop Esq; his Majesties Post-master General, finding that neither the intelligence of his Majesty from Carlisle, and all parts of Cumberland and Westmerland, nor the necessary correspondencies of merchants and others into those countries, have been so speedy as it ought: ...; 1660, 1 sheet.

William Dockwra, London Penny Post, March 1680 to Nov. 1682.
[Charles Gildon], Post-boy rob'd of his mail, or, the pacquet broke open.  Consisting of five hundred letters ... with observations upon each letter.  Publish'd by a gentleman concern'd in the frolick, London, 1692.
Second volume ... To which are added several ingenious letters lately sent to the gentleman concern'd in this frolick, 1693.

Many other editions and imitations; for example, John Dunton, Post-Boy robbed of his mail, 1700 and 1706.




1700-1749   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)
The Almanach Royal, Paris, 1707 and 1708, contained a section "Liste générale des postes de France", which developed into a separate publication in other hands, and continued until 1859.

Almanac ou Calendrier pour l'Année ..., Paris : Laurent D'Houry, 1683-1699.
Almanach Domestique, ou Calendrier pour l'Année 1691, Paris : Estienne Michallet.
  • 1691 (link), "Table des jours que partent les Couriers ordinaires de Paris ...", p. (27)-(37) (link).
    • p. (29), Constantinople, le lundi au soir, il faut payer le port jusqu'à Lyon (link).
    • p. (37), post boxes in Paris (link).
  • 1692 (link), "Liste alphabetique des villes & lieux ... où les Couriers des Postes generales de France portent les lettres & paquets", p. (47)-(62) (link).
    • p. (50), Constantinople, Lundi, mercredi & vendr. à minuit, payez le port jusqu'à Marseille (link).
    • p. (61-62), post boxes in Paris, etc. (link).
  • 1693 (link), same, p. (49)-(64) (link).
  • 1694 (link), same, p. (49)-(64) (link).
  • 1695 (link), "Liste generale et alphabetique des Postes [de France]", p. (65)-(80) (link).
  • 1696 (link), same, p. 65-80 (link).
  • 1697 (link), same, p. 65-80 (link).
  • 1698 (link), same, p. 81-96 (link).
  • 1699 (link), same, p. 81-96 (link).

Almanach Royal, pour l'Année [or, l'An] ..., Paris : Laurent d'Houry, 1700-1792.

  • 1700 (link), "Liste generale et alphabetique des Postes [de France]", p. 81-96 (link); "Memoire general des Couriers de France qui partiront de Paris ...", p. 97-100 (link).
  • 1701 (link), Memoire ..., p. 78-80 (link); Liste ..., p. 81-96 (link).
  • 1702 (link), Memoire ..., p. 78-80 (link); Liste ..., p. 81-96 (link).
  • 1703 (link), Memoire ..., p. 77-80 (link); Liste ..., p. 81-96 (link); "Route des Postes par alphabet, ...", p. 113-115 (link).
  • 1704 (link), Memoire ..., p. 101-104 (link); Liste ..., p. 105-120 (link); Route ..., p. 137-139 (link).
  • 1705 (link), Memoire ..., p. 109-112 (link); Liste ..., p. 113-128 (link).
  • 1706 (link), Memoire ..., p. 111-112 (link); Liste ..., p. 113-128 (link); Route ..., p. 145-147 (link).
  • 1707 (link), Memoire ..., p. 127-128 (link); "Ordre general des couriers par alphabet ... pour les lettres", p. 129-144 (link); "Liste generale des Postes de France", p. 161-173 (link).
  • 1708 (link), Memoire ..., p. 127-128 (link); Ordre ..., p. 129-144 (link); "Liste generale des Postes de France, Corrigée & Augmentée", p. 161-173 (link).
  • 1709 (link), Memoire ..., p. 143-144 (link); Ordre ..., p. 145-160 (link); "Routes des postes du Royaume", p. 177-192 (link).
  • 1710 (link), Memoire ..., p. 143-144 (link); Ordre ..., p. 145-161 (link); Routes ..., p. 177-192 (link).
  • 1711 (link), Memoire ..., p. 147-149 (link); Ordre ..., p. 149-166 (link).
  • 1712 (link), Memoire ..., p. 157-159 (link); Ordre ..., p. 159-176 (link).
  • 1713 (link), Memoire ..., p. 162-164 (link); Ordre ..., p. 165-182 (link).
  • 1714 (link), Memoire ..., p. 177-179 (link); Ordre ..., p. 179-197 (link).
  • 1715 (link), Memoire ..., p. 242-244 (link); Ordre ..., p. 244-264 (link).
  • etc., to 1792
  • Almanach national de France, 1793-1804  (BnF)
    Almanach impérial, 1805-1813  (BnF)
    Almanach royal, 1814-1830  (BnF)
    Almanach royal et national, 1831-1847  (BnF)
    Almanach national, 1848-1852  (BnF)
    Almanach impérial, 1853-1871  (BnF)
    Almanach national, 1872-1919  (BnF)
Liste générale des postes de France, Paris : Sieur Jaillot, 1706-1779; Paris : Philippe-Denys Pierres, 1780-1786.
  • From the earliest title pages, "Pour le Service du Roy et pour la Commodité du Public.", "For the service of the King and the convenience of the public."
  • Published annually or semi-annually; we list those volumes reliably reported to still exist.
  • The number of pages varies, from about 40 at the beginning, to about 200 in 1786; the page size increased as well.  The text was engraved until 1771, then printed from type with an engraved title page.
  • The official sponsor varies; "Dressé par ordre de ... ministre et secretaire d'estat ..." or similar.
  • A map, Carte Générale des Routes des Postes de France, Carte Générale des Postes de France, Carte géométrique des Routes de Postes, or Tableau Générale des Postes, or similar, was included for an additional charge; it seldom appears in these digital versions, even if present in the original.
  • BnF, various locations, 1708, 1714, 1721-22, 1740-41, 1747, 1754-57, 1759-60, 1763-65, 1769-72, 1774-86
  • British Library, 1718, 1721, 1726, 1733, 1746, 1758, 1764, 1772, 1776-77, 1780, 1783, 1785
  • Princeton Univ., http://pulsearch.princeton.edu/catalog/2138793, etc.;
  • Univ. Pennsylvania [Penn], http://franklin.library.upenn.edu/; 1706, 1708, 1716, 1718, 1720-1722, 1726, 1730-1731, 1736, 1740-1745, 1747, 1749, 1752-1757, 1759-1760, 1763, 1765-1767, 1769-1770, 1772-1786
  • Sir H. George Fordham, see below, 1708, 1715, 1718, 1721-22, 1724, 1726, 1730-31, 1733, 1737-38, 1741, 1744, 1747, 1750-56, 1759-61, 1763-64, 1767, 1770-72, 1774-79.  The two editions reported for 1772 are perhaps Janvier and Juillet.  Title pages are illustrated for 1708, 1724, 1730, 1752, 1767, 1772, and sample pages from 1708, 1772, with notes on counterfeit or pirate editions from a few years (1712, 1723?, 1748?).  Fordham's book collection is now at the Royal Geographical Society (link).
  • Nougaret (tome II) gives a table indicating the official sponsor, number of pages, and publisher, 1706-1859, but data is missing for many years.
État général des postes de France, Paris, 1787-1824.  [The title varies]
  • État général des postes de France, Paris : Philippe-Denys Pierres, 1787-1793
  • État général des postes de la République française, an III-an VI
  • État général des postes aux chevaux et aux lettres de la République française, an VI [éd. augmentée]-an IX
  • État général des postes ..., an X
  • État général des relais de postes, Paris : Imprimerie de la République, An XI (1802-3)
  • État général des postes aux chevaux ..., an XII
  • État général des postes et relais de l'Empire français, Paris : Imprimerie impériale, An XIII (1804-5), 1806-1810
  • État général des routes de poste de l'Empire français, du Royaume d'Italie et de la Confédération du Rhin, Paris : Imprimerie impériale, 1811, 1812, 1814
  • État général, par ordre alphabétique, des routes de poste de l'Empire français, du Royaume d'Italie, de la Confédération du Rhin, &c. &c., Paris : Imprimerie impériale, 1813
  • État général des postes du Royaume de France, Paris : Imprimerie royale, 1814-1824
  • From 1806 to 1814 with the additional heading "Postes impériales", but 1814 also without it (the Royal version).
Livre de poste, ou État général des postes du Royaume de France, Paris : Imprimerie royale, 1825-1837.  [The title varies.]
  • Livre de poste, ou État général des postes du Royaume de France, 1825-1829
  • Livre de poste, ou État général des postes aux chevaux du Royaume de France, 1830-1832
  • Livre de poste, ou État général des postes aux chevaux du Royaume de France, des relais des routes desservies en poste, conduisant des frontières de France aux principales capitales de l'Europe, 1833-1837
Livre de poste ..., Paris : Imprimerie royale, 1838-1859.  [The title varies.]
  • Livre de poste indiquant 1° les postes aux chevaux du Royaume de France, 2° les relais des routes desservies en poste, conduisant des frontières de France aux principales capitales de l'Europe, 3° l'organisation du service des paquebots de la Méditerranée, 1838-1839
  • Livre de poste contenant 1° la désignation des relais de poste du royaume, et la fixation des distances en myriamètres et kilomètres, 2° l'indication des relais placés sur les routes étrangères, à partir des frontières de France, 3° le tableau du service des paquebots de la Méditerranée, 1840-1848
  • Livre de poste contenant 1° la désignation des relais de poste de la République française, et la fixation des distances en myriamètres et kilomètres, 2° l'indication des relais placés sur les routes étrangères, à partir des frontières de France, 3° le tableau du service des paquebots de la Méditerranée, 1849-1851
  • Livre de poste contenant 1° la désignation des relais de poste de l'Empire français, et la fixation des distances en myriamètres et kilomètres, 2° l'indication des relais placés sur les routes étrangères, à partir des frontières de France, 3° le tableau du service des paquebots de la Méditerranée, 1852-1859
  • Paris : Imprimerie royale, 1838-1848
  • Paris : Imprimerie nationale, 1849-1851
  • Paris : Imprimerie impériale, 1852-1859
See also,

Maps,

Jacques Le Quien De La Neufville, Origine de postes chez les anciens et chez les modernes, Paris, 1708 and 1709.
[Jacques Le Quien De La Neufville], Usage des postes chez les anciens et les modernes, nouvelle édition, Paris, 1730, xii + 467 + [29] p.

See also,

  • F.-A. Quinet, Essai de Bibliographie postale, 1906, pp. 33-36 (link), who describes the 1708 edition as the first work in French on the general history of the posts.  Quinet does not mention the 1709 version.  It is noted that, the author having died in 1727, his name was purged from the 1730 edition.
  • Wikipedia (French), Jacques Le Quien de La Neufville
An Act for establishing a General Post Office for all Her Majesties Dominions, and for settling a weekly Sum out of the Revenues thereof for the Service of the War and other Her Majesties Occasions.

June 23, 1711, proclamation of Queen Anne, establishing a post office in America, under this statute, http://books.google.com/books?id=ncY4AQAAMAAJ

A Collection of the Statutes Now in Force, Relating to the Stamp-Duties, London,
Stamped paper was a means of collecting taxes (duties) on documents, including "journals, mercuries, and news-papers".  For a more complete history, including the British and French adhesive revenue stamps introduced in 1853 and 1859, see




1750-1799   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)
The Gregorian calendar was introduced in England, Scotland and the British dominions, with Sep. 2 followed by Sep. 14, 1752.  Under the Calendar (New Style) Act 1750, the legal year now began Jan. 1, instead of March 25; Scotland had already made this change in 1600.
Dictionnaire des postes, Paris.  [The title varies.]
John Rocque, A General Map of the Post Roads of Europe wherein all the post stages with their distances are particularly expressed, London : Robert Sayer.
  • Second title, Carte générale des postes de l'Europe, dans laquelle on a tracé toutes les routes, et marqué tous les lieux ou la poste est etablie.
Benjamin Franklin, Additional Instruction to the Deputy Postmasters of North America, Mar. 10, 1758.
To which previous publication was this additional?
Death of Britain's King George II, Oct. 25, 1760; succeeded by George III.
Nouveau journal des postes, et tarif des ports de lettres, Paris, 1760 and later.

Edme-Giles Guyot, Guide des lettres, Paris, 1763-1791.

Edme-Giles Guyot, Petit guide des lettres, Paris, 1773-1776, 70 p.

Franz Joseph Heger, Post-Tabellen oder Verzeichnuß deren Post-Strassen in dem Kayserlichen Romischen Reich ..., Mainz : Häffner, [1764], 18 + 130 + [12] p.
A Collection of the Statutes Now in Force, Relating to the Post Office, London, 1767, 176 p.
François-Joseph Heger, Tablettes de postes de l'Empire d'Allemagne et des provinces limitrophes, Dédiées à Son Altesse Sérénissime Monseigneur Alexandre-Ferdinand, Prince de la Tour et Tassis, etc.

Mayence [Mainz] : Haeffner, n.d. [1770-1790], vi + 182 p.
Manheim, Brussels : Lemaire, n.d. [1770-1790], vi + 182 p.
Aix-La-Chapelle : R.A. de Saint-Aubin, n.d. [1770-1790], vi + 190 p.
Brussels : B. Le Francq, 1793, xvi + 196 p.
Poste aux lettres, etc.
Journal kept by Hugh Finlay, Surveyor of the Post Roads on the Continent of North America, during his Survey of the Post Offices between Falmouth and Casco Bay in the Province of Massachusetts, and Savannah in Georgia : begun the 13th Septr. 1773 and ended 26th June 1774.
Contemporary news reports, from Readex/Newsbank, America's Historical Newspapers, 1690-1922.
  • The Massachusetts Gazette, Boston, Oct. 18, 1773, p. 3.
    • Quebec, September 19.  On Monday last the Hon. Hugh Finlay, Esq; one of his Majesty's Council for this province, and Surveyor General of the Post-Roads in North-America, set out from this city, attended by Mr. Launiere an Indian Interpreter, and four Indians, with an intention to steer a direct course through the woods from Satigan in this province to Fort Halifax, in New England, in order to ascertain the uninhabited distance, and to estimate the expence of opening a post road that way, if it should be found practicable; a thing so long in agitation, so much desired, and that must be of such mutual advantage to both provinces; and afterwards to make a tour to the southward to survey the several post-roads in the King's dominions on the continent.
    • Boston, October 18.  The Hon. Hugh Finlay, Esq; Surveyor General of the Post-Roads in North-America, arrived in Town last Week from Quebec, by way of Kennebec, which he has found to be the nearest and best Conveyance between that and the New-England Provinces.
  • The Providence Gazette, Providence, Rhode Island, Oct. 30, 1773, p. 3.
    • Providence, October 30.  The Honourable Hugh Finlay, Esq; Surveyor General of his Majesty's Post Roads on the Continent of North-America, arrived here on Monday last from Boston.  This worthy and ingenious Gentleman left Quebec on the 13th of September, accompanied by four Abenaqui Indians, and two Hurons, to explore a short Rout from Canada to the nearest Settlements in the Province of Massachusetts-Bay.  He was ten Days in the Woods between the last Inhabitants in the Province of Quebec, and the first Settlements on Kennebec River, in New-England, and has reported the Distance from Quebec to Boston to be 426 miles.
    • (continued at length, not copied here)
  • The Connecticut Gazette, New London, Mar. 4, 1774, p. 3.
    • The Hon. Hugh Finlay, Esq; Surveyor General of the post roads, having completed his survey at the Southward, left Charles-Town, South-Carolina, about the middle of January, on his return to Canada.
  • The Pennsylvania Gazette, Philadelphia, Apr. 20, 1774, p. 2.
    • Hugh Finlay, Esq; Surveyor of the Posts in North-America, is appointed Deputy Post-master General, in the room of Dr. Franklin.

See also,

William Goddard's plan for an independent post office in the American colonies, Essex Gazette, Mar. 15, 1774, p. 135.

William Goddard, The plan for establishing a new American post-office, [Boston, 1774], 1 sheet.

See also, Joseph M. Adelman, "A Constitutional Conveyance of Intelligence, Public and Private": The Post Office, the Business of Printing, and the American Revolution, Enterprise & Society, Vol. 11, No. 4 (Dec. 2010), pp. 711-754, http://www.jstor.org/stable/23701246

William Goddard's sister, Mary Katherine Goddard, was Postmaster of Baltimore from 1775 to Sep. 1789.
  • letter to George Washington, Dec. 1789 (link).
  • Christopher J. Young, Mary K. Goddard: A Classical Republican in a Revolutionary Age, Maryland Historical Magazine, Spring 2001, p. 5-27 (pdf).
A Collection of the Statutes Now in Force, Relating to the Post-Office, New-York : Hugh Gaine, 1774, 174 pp.
Identical to the 1767 Collection published in London, but reset.
Benjamin Franklin was appointed Postmaster General under the [US] Continental Congress, July 26, 1775.  His successors (to 1789), by appointment date, were
The Ledger of Doctor Benjamin Franklin, Postmaster General, 1776.
  • See the printed version of 1865, below.
Ordonnance du Roi en faveur des maîtres de postes aux chevaux et de la ferme des messageries, contre les entreprises des loueurs de chevaux, Paris : Imprimerie royale, 1779, 3 p.
Samuel Osgood was appointed US Postmaster General under the Constitution, Sep. 26, 1789. 
  • Successors (through 1875), with appointment dates, etc.
  • First Annual Report of the Postmaster General, Dec. 9, 1789, as published in 1885 (link).
US National Archives, Letters Sent By the Postmaster General, 1789-1836
M. De Saint-Victour, Mémoire sur la réunion des trois services, des postes aux chevaux, de la poste aux lettres, et des messageries, sous une seule administration, Paris, 1790, 32 p.
Plan for Improving the [US] Post Office Department, Samuel Osgood to Alexander Hamilton, Jan. 20, 1790.
List of [US] Post Offices, and the Receipts and Expenditures to January 5, 1790.
An Ordinance For regulating the Post-Office of the United States of America, [1790], 4 p.
  • http://www.loc.gov/item/rbpe.21300300/  [LOC]
  • An incomplete draft of the ordinance, missing specific numbers for various items.
  • The date is more likely to be 1782, as a draft of the ordinance passed Oct. 18, 1782.  Compare to Journals of the Continental Congress, vol. 23, p. 669-679 (link).
List of [US] Post Offices, and the Receipts and Expenditures for the year ending October 5, 1791.
An Act to establish the Post-Office and Post Roads within the United States, Feb. 20, 1792.  Effective June 1, 1792.
Timothy Pickering, Instructions to the Deputy Postmasters, [Philadelphia, 1792], 5 + [1] + 4 p.
France, [Direction générale des postes], Instruction générale sur le service des postes, Paris : l'Imprimerie de Ph.-D. Pierres, Imprimeur de l'Administration des Postes, [1792], viii + 161 p.  (Nougaret 1879; viii + 166 p.)
Later editions, 1808, 1810, 1832-1833, 1839, 1856, 1868, 1876 (see below).
  • 1808, Paris : l'Imprimerie impériale, 176 p.  (Nougaret 1881)
  • 1810, Paris : l'Imprimerie impériale, 419 p.
    • -- GK entry number 20151, Reel 1994.  "'With a second title-page in Dutch and the Dutch and French texts on opposite pages."
  • 1811, bilingual edition, French-German, pub. Hamburg (Nougaret 1881)
Account of the Days and Hours of the Post Going Out Of, and Coming Into, the City of Gloucester, 1792?, 1 sheet.
A Collection of the Statutes Relating to the Post Office, London, 1793, 281 p.
John Palmer's postal reforms in Britain, Parliamentary Reports from 1793 to 1813.
  • Starting in 1782, John Palmer suggested and implemented changes in the British mail-coach system, in return for a percentage of increased postal receipts.  The Post Office fought his ideas, and after the ideas were proved correct, they fought the payment.  Parliament finally awarded £50,000 in 1813.
Carte géométrique des Routes de Postes du royaume
  • 1788, bound with État général des postes de France, APRL (see above)
Carte géométrique des Routes de Postes de la Republique Françoise [Française],
État général et carte géométrique Des Routes de la République Française, desservies en Poste, ..., suivi d'un État-Général de la Poste aux Lettres, Paris : Duchesne, An IX (1800-1801), xxxii + 155 p.
[US] Postmaster General's Report, Jan. 20, 1795.
  • Annals of Congress, The Debates and Proceedings in the Congress of the United States, Washington : Gales and Seaton, 1834, vol. 2, col. 2161-2168 (link).
Map of the United States exhibiting the situations, connections and distances of the Post-Offices, Stage-roads, Counties, Ports of Entry and Delivery for Foreign Vessels, and the principal rivers, by Abraham Bradley, Jr., Philadelphia, on sale from the author at the General Post-Office and at his house.  Registered with the copyright office, Sep. 26, 1796; notice published in the Gazette of the United States, Oct. 3, 1796.

Additional maps by Abraham Bradley, Jr., not a complete list

Table of post-offices in the United States, with the distance from the post-office at Philadelphia to every other post-office here mentioned, Philadelphia, 1796, 1 sheet.
  • -- ESTC, http://estc.bl.uk/W15497
  • Includes rates of postage and an abridged copy of postal regulations; signed and dated: General Post-Office, Philadelphia, November 15, 1796, Joseph Habersham, post-master-general.
  • (Bristol B9774; Shipton & Mooney 47980)
Jedidiah Morse, The American Gazetteer, Boston, 1797, not paginated.

Similar, but the 1804 and 1810 editions omit the post office list.

Charles Bonnor [or, Bonner], The Proceedings and Correspondence, Relating to Certain Articles of Accusation, Which were exhibited under the Authority of the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury, against the Principal and Resident Surveyor, and the Presidents of the Inland Office; founded on a Conviction that the Mismanagement of the Inland Department of the General Post-Office, among numerous other ill Consequences, exposes its Revenues to a Waste exceeding One Hundred Thousand Pounds Sterling Per Annum, London, 1798, x + 76 + [2] p.
  • A proposal for (what later became) a Certificate of Posting is illustrated on p. 69 (link).
  • Bonnor was deputy to John Palmer at the British Post Office.  Since 1786, their titles were (Palmer) Surveyor and Comptroller General, and (Bonnor) Resident Surveyor and Deputy Comptroller General.  In 1797 they were both drawing pensions from the Post Office (link).
The Post-Office Law, with Instructions, Forms and Tables of Distances, Published for the Regulation of the Post-Offices, Philadelphia, 1798; Washington, 1800.

The Post-Office Law, with Instructions and Forms, Published for the Regulation of the Post-Offices, Washington, 1804, 1808, 1810, 1812, 1817, 1818.

  • 1804, 70 p.
    • -- NPM, KF2662 1804 rare
  • 1808, 74 p.; p. 66, dated Nov. 1, 1808.
    • -- APRL, GOV DOC P 1.11:808 (photocopy)
    • -- Early American imprints, no. 16538
    • USPBC
      • http://www.ipdastamps.org/USnotices/regulations1808.pdf (archived)
  • 1810, 111 p.; p. 70, dated July 12, 1810.
    • -- NPM, KF2662 1810 rare
    • -- Early American imprints, no. 21793.
    • USPBC
      • http://www.ipdastamps.org/USnotices/regulations1810.pdf (archived)
  • 1812, 142 p.; 
    • -- Early American imprints, no. 27286.
  • 1817, 106 p.; p. 98, dated March 1817.
    • -- Early American imprints, no. 42669.
    • (Shaw & Shoemaker 42669)
    • USPBC
      • http://www.ipdastamps.org/USnotices/regulations1817.pdf (archived)
  • 1818, 90 p., Washington : Lawrence & Wilson; p. 82, dated March 1817.
    • USPBC
      • http://www.ipdastamps.org/USnotices/regulations1818.pdf (archived)

Post-Office Laws, Instructions and Forms, Published for the Regulation of the Post-Office, Washington, 1820, 1825, 1828.

  • 1820, 1825, 1828, etc., see below
Published until 1948 as Postal Laws and Regulations (PL&R).




1800-1809   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)
Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Sessions 1800 - 1809.  (previous, next)
Post Office Directories for London, etc., from 1800 to 1875 (and later, and elsewhere in Britain).
Table of post offices and rates of postage of single letters for post offices in the state of Massachusetts, distance computed from Boston to each other office, Philadelphia, 1800, 1 sheet.
  • Signed and dated: General Post Office, Philadelphia, April 14, 1800, Joseph Habersham, postmaster general.
  • (Evans 38908)
List of Post Offices in the United States, 1800.  Not seen.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Jan. 1, 1801, by the Acts of Union passed in 1800.
The Trial of Arthur Wallace, Assistant Deputy Post-master of Carlow [Ireland], for stealing notes out of the post bag, and for forgery, Dublin, 1800, 48 p.
Letter and Report from the [US] Post-Master General, accompanying a list of Post Roads, ..., Dec. 24, 1801, [Washington], 8 p.
[John Feltham], The Picture of London, for 1802, London : Richard Phillips, 1802.
  • General Post-Office, Two-penny Post-Office, p. 106-110 (link).
  • Receiving Houses for General and Twopenny Post Letters, p. 367-369 (link).
Later editions, 1803, 1804, 1805, 1806, 1807, 1808, 1809, 1811, 1813, 1815, 1816, 1818, 1820, 1822, 1825, 1826, 1827, 1833, 1839,  etc.  [British Library, Oxford, Harvard, etc.]
A.F. Lecousturier, F. Chaudouet, Dictionnaire géographique des postes aux lettres de tous les départements de la République française, Paris, An XI (1802).
Le petit livre de poste, ou Départ de Paris de la poste aux lettres, Paris.
Le livre de poste, ou Départ de Paris des courriers de la poste aux lettres, Paris.
Annuaire des postes, ou Manuel du service de la poste aux lettres et aux chevaux, Paris.
Annuaire des postes, ou Manuel du service de la poste aux lettres et aux chevaux : à l'usage du public, et particulièrement des commerçans et voyageurs en malle-poste / publié par ordre de l'administration, Paris, 1834-1852.
Annuaire des postes de l'Empire français, Paris, 1853-1870.
Annuaire des postes de la France, Paris, 1871-1876.
Annuaire des postes de France, Paris, 1877-1878.
Annuaire des postes et télégraphes de France, Paris, 1879.
Annuaire du Ministère des postes et des télégraphes de France, Paris, 1880-1887.
Annuaire de la Direction générale des postes et des télégraphes de France, Paris, 1888-1896.
etc.
William Cobbett, Abuses in the General Post Office, Cobbett's Annual Register, London, Nov. 20-27, 1802, vol. 2, col. 673-686.
List of the Post-Offices and Postmasters in the United States, Washington, 1802.  Dated Jan. 5, 1802.  American State Papers, Class X, Miscellaneous, vol. 1, Washington, 1834, reprinted 1998.
  • Deputy Postmasters in 1800, p. 289-299 (link).
  • Post Offices established in 1801, p. 299-300 (link).
List of the Post-Offices in the United States, Washington, 1803, 39 p.  Dated Nov. 7, 1803, on p. 39.
Letter from the Post-Master General transmitting An Annual Report on Post Roads, Washington, Nov. 28, 1803, 31 p.
Intercepted Letters.  Letters intercepted on board the Admiral Aplin, captured by the French, and inserted by the French Government in the Moniteur of the 16th September 1804, London, 1804, iv + 107 p.
List of Post Offices in the United States, Washington, 1805.  Dated Aug. 15, 1805.
Inquiry into the Conduct of the Postmaster General, communicated to the [US] House of Representatives, April 17, 1806, American State Papers, Post Office Department, p. 40.
Progress of the [US] Post Office Department from March 3, 1793 to January 12, 1807, communicated to the House of Representatives, January 19, 1807, American State Papers, Post Office Department, p. 40-41.
Additional List of Post Offices in the United States, Washington, 1807, 10 p.
List of Post Offices in the United States, Washington, 1807.  Dated Dec. 31, 1807.
Calvin F. Stevens, A List of the Post-offices in the United States; their names, counties and states; their distance from Washington City; rates of postage and distance from New-York City; with the laws and regulations of the establishment, New York : Isaac Riley, 1808, [4] + 92 p.
  • Stevens was a clerk in the New York City post office.
  • -- New-York Historical Society
  • -- CUL
  • -- Readex/Newsbank (Shaw & Shoemaker 16253)
État général des postes et relais de l'Italie, Florence : Nicolas Pagni, 8th ed., 1809.




1810-1819   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)
Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Sessions 1810 - 1819.  (previous, next)
Post-Handbuch für das Königreich Baiern, Munich : F.S. [Franz Seraph] Hübschmann.
Table of Post Offices in the United States, Washington, 1811, 70 + [2] p.  Internally dated April 24, 1811, to May 6, 1811.
Sunday Mails, communicated to the [US] House of Representatives, June 15, 1812.
  • American State Papers, Class X, Miscellaneous, vol. 1, Washington, 1834, reprinted 1998, p. 194 (link).
Thomas Moore, Intercepted Letters, or, The Twopenny Post-Bag, London.
Table of Post Offices in the United States, Washington, 1813, 84 p.
List of post roads in the United States which "have not in the last year produced one-third part of the expense of carrying the mail on the same.", Washington, Mar. 22, 1814.
The US Postmaster General reported that no official books or papers were lost in the British attack on Washington in August 1814 (link).
August Schumann, Vollständiges Staats-, Post- und Zeitungs-Lexikon von Sachsen, Zwickau, 1814-1833; more details.
General Post-Office, A Candid Examination, of the Origin and Management, of what is called the Inland Letter-Carrier's Superannuated Fund, by a Friend to Impartial Justice, London, 1815, 48 p.
  • Includes correspondence from Benjamin Critchett, who was Inspector of the Inland Letter-Carriers, and proprietor of the Post-Office London Directory.
Laws of the United States of America, Philadelphia : Bioren and Duane, vol. 1, 1815, 726 p.
  • Origin of the General Post Office of the United States, Ch. 38, p. 649-658 (link).  This covers the period July 26, 1775, to Sep. 20, 1786.
  • The publisher W. John Duane was married to the daughter of former Postmaster General Richard Bache, whose wife was the daughter of Benjamin Franklin [Wikipedia].
The Post-Roads in France, with the routes which conduct to the principal cities in Europe; being a translation of the État général des postes for 1816, London : Samuel Leigh, 1816, 319 p.
  • -- British Library shelfmark General Reference Collection P.P.2412.za.
See also, 1820.
A Register of Officers and Agents, Civil, Military, and Naval, in the Service of the United States, on the Thirtieth day of September 1816, Washington, 1816.
  • Next edition 1817, then every two years until 1959.
  • Later title, Official Register of the United States.  Commonly known as the Biennial Register or the Official Register.
  • more details, including a subject index, for the period 1816 to 1875
Dictionnaire des postes aux lettres du royaume de France, Paris, 1817.
Table of Post-Offices in the United States, Washington, 1817, 88 p.  Dated May 19, 1817, on p. 84.
  • http://books.google.com/books?id=J_sCAAAAYAAJ  [Harvard]
  • -- LCP
  • Includes (p. 85-88) a table of the post-office establishment from 1789 to 1816, rates of postage, and a view of the progress of the Post-Office Department.
  • (Shaw & Shoemaker 42748)
Timothy Pitkin, A Statistical View of the Commerce of the United States of America.
Adam Seybert, Statistical Annals, embracing views of the Population, etc., Philadelphia : Thomas Dobson, 1818, xvii + 803 p.; preface dated Oct. 31, 1818.
Henry Burgess, On the establishment of an extra post, for the purpose of multiplying and improving the means of postage communications between the distant and important parts of the Kingdom, London, 1819, 2 + 23 p.
  • -- British Library shelfmark 1391.i.15
Henry Burgess, A plan for obtaining a more speedy postage communication between London and the distant parts of the kingdom, London, 1819, 8 + 60 p.
  • -- British Library shelfmark 8247.dd.15
Report of the Committee of the Society of Arts ... relative to the mode of Preventing the Forgery of Bank Notes, London, 1819, ii + 72 p.
Table of Post-Offices in the United States, Washington, 1819, 86 p.
Postage, from the Poughkeepsie [New York] Journal, Mar. 24, 1819, in The American Historical Record, Sep. 1874, vol. 3, p. 418 (link).
  • The distance determined the postage fees, but who decided the distance?  The merchants of Poughkeepsie argued that the Post Office had miscalculated, and begged for a decrease.
Society for Literary and Scientific Improvement, founded Oct. 1819 in Birmingham, England, by Thomas Wright Hill and his son Rowland.  The group survived until Jan. 1827; its goals were continued by the Birmingham Mechanics Institution.




1820   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1820.  (previous, next)

Ch. G. Vischer, Allgemeine geschichtliche Zeittafel des Postwesens, nebst einer allgemeinen Literatur derselben, Tübingen, 1820, iv + 68 p.

The post roads of Europe : being a new edition of the work published by authority, during the reign of Napoleon, London : Samuel Leigh, 1820, 324 p.
Jan. 29
Death of Britain's King George III, Jan. 29, 1820; succeeded by George IV, who had been Prince Regent since 1811.
Jan.
Peter Force, The National Calendar, and Annals of the United States, Washington : various publishers, 1820-1836.
July 25
Post-Office Laws, Instructions and Forms, Published for the Regulation of the Post-Office, Washington, 1820, 122 p.
  • p. 113, dated July 25, 1820.
  • USPBC
    • http://www.ipdastamps.org/USnotices/regulations1820.pdf (archived)

Previous editions, 1798-1818 (see above); later editions, 1825, 1828, etc. (see below).


Britain, House of Commons, Commissioners of Inquiry into the Departments of the Customs and Excise, 1820-24.
  • Not postal, but a predecessor to the Commissioners of Inquiry into the Collection and Management of the Revenue, 1822-1830 (see 1829).
  • 1820 (46) VI.559, First to Sixth Reports
  • 1821 (25) X.283, Seventh to Tenth Reports
  • 1822 (87) XI.29, Eleventh and Twelfth Reports
  • 1823 (425) VII.175, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Reports
  • 1824 (141) IX.183, Fifteenth Report, Excise (link)
  • 1824 (429) IX.195, Sixteenth Report, Excise (link)






1821   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1821.   (previous, next)






1822   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1822.   (previous, next)

Table of Post Offices in the United States, Washington, 1822, 114 p.

Itinéraire général des postes et relais, Brussels : Remy.

Livre general des postes et relais, Brussels : de Mat and Remy.







1823   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1823.   (previous, next)

Nicolas-Louis Gouin, Essai historique sur l'Etablissement des postes en France, sur les produits progressifs de ce domaine royal, les changemens ou améliorations opérés dans son organisation, depuis l'année 1464, jusqu'au mois d'Octobre 1823, Paris : Impr. de Moreau, 1823, 15 p.
Nov. 17
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Nov. 17, 1823.
  • 18th Congress, 1st Session, Documents accompanying the Message of the President of the United States, to both Houses, at the Commencement of the First Session of the Eighteenth Congress, Dec. 2, 1823.
  • [Senate] US Serial Set, 89 S.doc.1/4, p. 199-204.
  • [House] US Serial Set, 93 H.doc.2/4, p. 199-204.
  • ASP, Appendix, No. 2, p. 359-361 (link, link).
    • Incorrectly identified as 18th Congress 2d Session, with some textual changes.
  • Niles' Weekly Register, Baltimore, Dec. 27, 1823, vol. 25, p. 267-269 (link).
  • For a transcription, see Reports of the United States Postmaster General 1823-1840, With Additional Data, compiled by William Hagan, Portland [Oregon], 2004.
(previous, next)






1824   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1824.   (previous, next)

Anon., The Periodical Press of Great Britain and Ireland, or, an inquiry into the state of the Public Journals, chiefly as regards their Moral and Political influence, London : Hurst, Robinson, 1824, viii + 219 p.

[Switzerland], Instructions générales pour les directeurs et commis des postes, 1824, 23 p.
Jan. 24
Report of [US] Postmaster General, Jan. 24, 1824.
  • Annals of Congress, The Debates and Proceedings in the Congress of the United States, Washington : Gales and Seaton, 1856, col. 1216-1217 (link).
Feb. 24
Letter from the postmaster general transmitting a list of post routes, which have not produced, within the past year, one third of the expense of transporting the mail on the same, Washington, Feb. 24, 1824, 50 p.
Nov. 30
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Nov. 30, 1824.
  • 18th Congress, 2nd Session, Documents accompanying the Message of the President of the United States, Dec. 7, 1824.
  • [Senate] US Serial Set, 108 S.doc.1/5, p. 173-176.
  • [House] US Serial Set, 113 H.doc.2/5, p. 173-176.
  • ASP, No. 54, p. 118-119 (link, link).
  • Register of Debates in Congress, Washington : Gales and Seaton, 1825, vol. 1, Appendix, p. 35-36 (link).
  • Niles' Weekly Register, Baltimore, Jan. 1, 1825, vol. 27, p. 282-283 (link).
  • Transcribed, see 1823.

(previous, next)







1825   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1825.   (previous, next)
Jan. 1
Table of Post-Offices in the United States, Washington : Way & Gideon, 1825, 131 p.
Mar. 11
Post-Office Law, Instructions and Forms, Published for the Regulation of the Post-Office, Washington : Way & Gideon, 1825, 148 p.
  • p. 3-23, An Act to reduce into one the several acts establishing and regulating the Post-office Department, Mar. 3, 1825.
  • p. 25-60, Instructions to the Post-masters in the United States relative to Their Duty.
  • p. 61-148, Post-roads established by Law.
  • p. 51, dated John M'Lean, Postmaster General, March 11, 1825.  John McLean was the US Postmaster General, 1823-1829.
Previous editions, 1798-1820 (see above); later editions, 1828 (see below)

Alfred John Kempe, Historical Notices of the Collegiate Church Or Royal Free Chapel and Sanctuary of St. Martin-le-Grand, London, Formerly Occupying the Site Now Appropriated to the New General Post Office, London : Longman, 1825, x + 212 p.
See also, Wikipedia, St. Martin's Le Grand; The British Postal Museum, The General Post Office: GPO East – 1829-1912
Nov. 24
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Nov. 24, 1825.

(previous, next)







1826   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1826.   (previous, next)

Charles Bernède, Des postes en général, et particulièrement en France, Paris : Raynal, 1826, iv + 177 + [3] p.

A remarkable history and summary of the postal systems.

Nov. 18
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Nov. 18, 1826.
  • 19th Congress, 2nd Session, Documents accompanying the Message of the President of the United States, Dec. 5, 1826.
  • [Senate] US Serial Set, 144 S.doc.1, p. 133-136.
  • [House] US Serial Set, 148 H.doc.2,

  • ASP, No. 63, p. 144-145 (link, link).
  • Register of Debates in Congress, Washington : Gales and Seaton, 1829, vol. 3, Appendix, col. 1583-1585 (link).
  • Transcribed, see 1823.

(previous, next)







1827   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1826-27.  (previous, next)
Nov. 13
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Nov. 13, 1827.
  • 20th Congress, 1st Session, Documents accompanying the Message of the President of the United States, Dec. 4, 1827.
  • [Senate] US Serial Set, 163 S.doc.1/8, p. 253-254 (link).
  • [House] US Serial Set, 169 H.doc.2/8, p. 253-254 (link).
  • ASP, No. 67, p. 155-156 (link, link).
  • Transcribed, see 1823.

(previous, next)







1828   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Baldwin and Cradock, vol. 1, 1828, 60 p.  Preface date Dec. 24, 1827; published Jan. 1, 1828 (per 1829, p. 3).
  • General Post-Office, London, p. 55 (link). 
    • Under this heading, information concerning letters, newspapers, mail packets.  In later years, more detailed postage rates, the London Twopenny Post-Office, mail coaches, mail trains, etc.
  • Stamp Table, p. 58-59 (link).
    • Under this heading and similar, information concerning taxes, duties and license fees of various kinds, some paid with revenue stamps or markings.  For an example, see the title page of this volume, showing the 1 s. 3 d. duty on almanacs, in red.
(previous, next)

Published under the superintendence of The Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.  See Charles Knight's memoirs, vol. 2, p. 58-65 (link), for more history of the Almanac.
  • The Society was founded by Henry Brougham in 1826, suspended operations in 1846, and dissolved in 1848.  It took its name from an article published by Charles Knight in 1822 ["Diffusion of Useful Knowledge", in The Plain Englishman, 1822, vol. 3, p. 277] (ref).  Similar impulses led to the Mechanics' Institutes, and the University of London (now University College London).  See also, the UCL Bloomsbury Project, and the UCL Archives.
  • The Committee included from the beginning the brothers Matthew Davenport Hill and Rowland Hill, and Edwin Hill a year later.  Knight himself was not on the Committee, but played an important role.  
  • The phrase "diffusion of useful knowledge" appears as early as 1803 ["Materials for Thinking, or, Essays on the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, and the Happiness of Man", W. Burdon, Newcastle, 1803, advertised in the Morning Post, Mar. 28, 1803].  The "Society for the Participation of Useful Knowledge" was founded in 1785 in Norwich (ref).  Similarly, the "Society for the Promoting of Useful Knowledge" in Newark, New Jersey, in 1787 (ref).

See also, Wikipedia, General Post Office, General Post-Office, London, St. Martin's Le Grand, Postage stamps and postal history of Great Britain.


The Companion to the Almanac, or Year-Book of General Information, 1828, vi + 186 p.  Preface date Feb. 27, 1828.
  • Postage Duties in Great Britain and Ireland, p. 151-155 (link, link, link).  Act of May 28, 1827, effective July 5, 1827.
  • Newspaper stamps, new post office building, p. 172-173 (link, link, link).
  • Throughout the series, small items can be found under the headings "Abstracts of Important Public Acts", "Abstracts of Parliamentary Documents", and "Chronicle of the Session of Parliament."
(previous, next)
  • -- Crawford Catalogue, col. 515; British Library shelfmark Crawford 1224 (1-6).
    • excerpts from 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, 1851, all noted below.
A Complete Index to the Companion to the Almanac, 1828-1843, London : Charles Knight, 1843, [2] + 561 + [1] p.

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1828.   (previous, next)

Trompeten-Schule für die Königl. Sächsischen Postillone, Leipzig, 1828, 24 p.

François [Francesco] Gandini, Itinéraire Postale et de Commerce de l'Europe, Milan, 7th ed., 1828, 204 p.

Earlier and later editions, 1819 (2nd), 1821 (4th), 1827 (5th), 1838, 1838.

  • See also, Carta Postale-Itineraria dell'Italia, a 3-page prospectus for 1838 (link).

Joseph-Léon Germain, Du secret des lettres et de la nécessité de mettre en accusation M. de Vaulchier, directeur-général des postes, Paris, 1828, 67 p.
  • -- NPM, JC596.2 .F8G47 1828 (Rare Books)
Jan.
C. [Cajetan] Ritter von Manner, Postbuch für das Jahr 1828, Vienna, 1828, [4] + iv + 104 p.  Preface date, Jan. 1828.

previous, J.A. Peter, Briefpost-Bericht, 1826; next, 1830.

Mar. 11
Post-Office Laws, Instructions and Forms, Published for the Regulation of the Post-Office, Washington : Way & Gideon, 1828, 63 p.
Mar. 17
Catalogue of a portion of the valuable library of Rev. Daniel Lysons, ..., sold by auction by Mr. Evans, London, Mar. 17-19, 1828, 36 p.
The item of interest is lot 669, two volumes of newspaper clippings, 1722-1808, including Mails, Post Chaises [Post Coaches], etc. (link), which was resold as
  • lot 1079, library of Philip Hurd, 1832 (link)
    • see also lots 1076, 1077, 1078, 1080, which had been lots 666, 667, 668, 670, in the Lysons sale
  • lot 1783, library of Dawson Turner, 1853 (link)
  • lot 1406, stock of L. Booth, 1862 (link)
  • lot 329, library of Robert Balmanno, 1863 (link)
  • later?
These are possibly the volumes now at the British Library, http://explore.bl.uk/...
See also, a title page, Huntington Library, http://catalog.huntington.org/record=b1678695
June 1
List of Post-Offices in the United States, Washington : Way & Gideon, 1828, xx + 151 p.
Nov. 17
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Nov. 17, 1828.
  • 20th Congress, 2nd Session, Documents accompanying the Message of the President of the United States, Dec. 2, 1828.
  • [Senate] US Serial Set, 181 S.doc.1/5, p. 179-181 (link).
  • [House] US Serial Set, 184 H.doc.2/5, p. 167-169 (link).
  • http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hwcd6p  [Harvard]
  • ASP, No. 72, p. 183-184 (link, link).
  • Register of Debates in Congress, Washington : Gales and Seaton, 1830, vol. 5, Appendix, p. 17-18 (link).
  • Transcribed, see 1823.

(previous, next)







1829   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight, vol. 2, 1829, 72 p.
  • General Post-Office, London, p. 63-65 (link).  Now includes postage rates, the London Twopenny Post-Office, mail coaches, etc.
    • "The weight of a letter franked by a Member of Parliament must not exceed one ounce.  Each member may frank ten and receive fifteen daily."
  • Stamp Table, Assessed Taxes, p. 66-68 (link).

(previous, next)


The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight, 1829, 246 p.
  • Net Produce of Stamps [revenue] in Great Britain; Net Produce of Post Office, Great Britain, p. 188 (link); see also, p. 184-185.

(previous, next)


Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1829.   (previous, next)
Jan.
[Review of] The Times, Jan. 19, 1829, The Westminster Review, Jan. 1829, vol. 10, no. 19, p. 216-237 (link). 
  • About the newspaper stamp duty, etc.
Apr.
[Review of] The Atlas, March 22, 1829, The Westminster Review, April, 1829, vol. 10, no. 20, p. 466-480 (link).
  • About the newspaper stamp duty, etc.
Apr.
Steam Navigation to India, by the Cape of Good Hope, Mr. Waghorn's Documents and Papers, London, 1829, 32 p.
May
[Jeremiah Evarts, ed.], An Account of Memorials Presented to Congress During its last Session, By Numerous Friends of Their Country and Its Institutions, Praying that the Mails May Not be Transported, Nor Post-offices Kept Open, on the Sabbath, New York [also Boston], May 1829, 32 p.

[Jeremiah Evarts], The Logic and Law of Col. Johnson's Report to the Senate, on Sabbath Mails, Utica, N.Y. : G.S. Wilson, 1829, 24 p.
  • -- APN vol. 3, pp. 53-83.
  • Excerpts from the New York Journal of Commerce.
July
History of Lithography, The Foreign Review, London, July 1829, vol. 4, no. 7, p. 41-58 (link).
  • "This is the age of wonders -- of gas, steam, and lithography!"
Oct.
The New Post Office, The Gentleman's Magazine, London, Oct. 1829 (published Nov. 1829), vol. 99, p. 297-301 + 1 plate [before p. 297] (link).
  • The General Post Office, London, transferred to a new building at St. Martin's-le-Grand on Sep. 23, 1829.  In coming years, the inadequacies of the building's interior would become apparent.

Reports of the Commissioners of Inquiry into the Collection and Management of the Revenue Arising in Ireland and Great Britain, 1829, 1830.
  • 1-17, listed below
  • 18, Post Office Revenue, United Kingdom, 20 March 1829, 697 p.
    • Parliamentary Papers 1829 (161) vol. XI, p. 1.
  • 19, Post-Office Revenue, United Kingdom: Part II. -- Ireland, 5 June 1829, 951 p.
    • Parliamentary Papers 1829 (353) vol. XII, p. 1.
  • 20, Post-Office Revenue, United Kingdom: Part III. -- Scotland, 8 Feb. 1830, 365 p. + 1 map.
    • Parliamentary Papers 1830 (63) vol. XIII, p. 1.
  • 21, Post-Office Revenue, United Kingdom: Part IV. -- England : Twopenny-Post Office, 24 Feb. 1830, 234 p. + 3 maps.
    • Parliamentary Papers 1830 (94) vol. XIII, p. 367.
  • 22, Post-Office Revenue, United Kingdom: Part V. -- Packet Establishments, Home Stations, 25 June 1830, 781 p.
    • Parliamentary Papers 1830 (647) vol. XIV, p. 1.
  • 23, Post Office, (1) The Twenty-third Report of the Commissioners of Revenue Inquiry, so far as relates to the Post Office Revenue, 6 July 1830; (2) Letter from the Postmaster-General to the Treasury, on the Twenty-third Report of the Commissioners of Revenue Inquiry, 12 April 1834; 6 p.
    • Parliamentary Papers 1834 (222) vol. XLIX, p. 481
    • PDF [ProQuest]
    • contents (1840 index, p. II.269)
  • See below, Needed Reform of the Post-Office, The Westminster Review, Apr. 1834.
In 1834 and 1835, there were follow-on reports by the Postmaster-General and the next set of Commissioners, detailing which of the suggested reforms had actually been implemented.
  • An Account of the Principal Improvements which have taken place by order of the Postmaster General during the last Three Years; 24 Feb. 1834, 4 p.  Contained in, Papers Relating to the Post-Office, 1834, 80 p.
    • Parliamentary Papers 1834 [48] vol. XLIX, p. 497.
    • PDF [ProQuest]
    • summary and contents (1840 index, p. II.269-270)
    • For Robert Wallace's comments, see Hansard, House of Commons Debates, 26 June 1834 (link).
  • Twenty-third Report, see above
  • Post-Office.  A Return showing which of the Recommendations made by the Commissioners of Revenue Inquiry, (and of which recommendations an Abstract was sent, by order of the Commissioners charged with an Inquiry into the Department of the General Post-office, in October, 1834, to the General Post-office) have been carried into effect; together with a Statement in respect of such of the said Recommendations as have not been acted upon, with the Reasons why the same respectively have not been carried into effect, 26 p.
    • Parliamentary Papers 1835 (443) vol. XLVIII, p. 313.
    • PDF [ProQuest]
  • Post Office.  Copy of the Duke of Richmond's Reply to the Statements of the Commissioners of Revenue Inquiry, on the Affairs of the Post Office, 16 p.
    • Parliamentary Papers 1835 (165) vol. XLVIII, p. 297.
    • PDF [ProQuest]
  • Post Office.  (1) Copy of a Letter and Statement from Commissioners of Revenue Inquiry to the Treasury, dated 23 May 1834, in Reply to the Observations of the Postmaster-General on their Reports;  (2) Amount of Letters between London, Hull and Hamburgh, for the Year ended 5 January 1835; 16 p.
    • Parliamentary Papers 1835 (40) vol. XLVIII, p. 339.
    • PDF [ProQuest]
Prior reports in this series, 1822 - 1828 (summary of contents)
See also, James L. Grimwood-Taylor, The British Postal Reforms of 1839 to 1840, 1990, Chapter 2.
Nov. 24
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Nov. 24, 1829.
  • 21st Congress, 1st Session, Documents accompanying the Message of the President of the United States, Dec. 8, 1829.
  • A brief historical review is included.
  • [Senate] US Serial Set, 192 S.doc.1/4, p. 43-48 (link).
  • [House] US Serial Set, 195 H.doc.2/3, p. 43-48 (link).
  • ASP, No. 76, p. 215-217 (link, link).
  • Register of Debates in Congress, Washington : Gales and Seaton, 1830, vol. 6, Appendix, col. 37-42 (link).
  • Niles' Weekly Register, Baltimore, Dec. 26, 1829, vol. 37, p. 283-285 (link).
  • Transcribed, see 1823.

(previous, next)







1830   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight, vol. 3, 1830, 72 p.
  • General Post-Office, London, p. 60-64 (link).
  • Stamp Table, Assessed Taxes, p. 66-68 (link).

(previous, next)


The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight, 1830, 264 p.
  • Brief Notice of the Progress of Public Improvements, Government Buildings, New Post Office, p. 233-237 (link).
  • Chronicle of Events, 1829, July 18, Sep. 23, p. 263, 264 (link).

(previous, next)

The Chronicle of the previous year's events ended in October or November, as the Almanac and Companion appeared in November or December of the previous year.

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1830.   (previous, next)

Frankfurter Postbuch, Frankfurt am Main : Carl Jügel, 1830, iv + 66 p.

'The Virginia Society' for Promoting the Observance of the Christian Sabbath, To the People of the United States.
  • -- APN vol. 3, pp. 85-92.
  • The actual author and publication details are not known.  It was probably published in Richmond, VA, in 1830.

Barnabas Bates, An Address ... on the Memorials to Congress to Prevent the Transportation of the Mail, and the Opening of the Post Offices on Sunday, New York, 1830, 12 p.
Jan.
C. [Cajetan] Ritter von Manner, Postbuch zum Gebrauche für Jedermann, Vienna, 1830, xvi + 276 p.  Preface date, Dec. 1829.

previous, 1828; next, 1838

Jan.
[Review of] The Leeds Mercury and The Manchester Guardian, The Westminster Review, vol. 12, no. 23, Jan. 1830, p. 69-103 (link). 
  • About the provincial newspapers, and the stamp duty.

William Herbert, Illustrations of the Site and Neighbourhood of the New Post Office, St. Martin's-le-Grand, London : Smales and Tuck, 1830, 75 p.
March
A List of Post-Towns and Principal Places; with the Postage of a Single Letter to or from London, According to the Actual Routes of the Post, London : Joseph Hartnell, 1830, 29 p.; on p. 29, Francis Freeling, Secretary, General Post-Office, March 1830.
June 26
Death of Britain's King George IV, June 26, 1830; succeeded by William IV.
Oct. 1
Table of the Post Offices in the United States, Washington, 1830; see 1831.
Nov. 11
First conveyance of mails by railway, from Liverpool to Manchester.  [Wikipedia]  [Railway Philatelic Group]
Nov. 21
The phrase "taxes on knowledge", for the 4d. British newspaper stamp duty, first appears in the masthead of The Examiner, London, Nov. 21, 1830.  Edwin Chadwick is credited with this; he was sub-editor at the time. 
The
              Examiner, Nov. 21, 1830
  • The price had previously been stated as "Price 7d." on the last page of each issue; it now appeared in its new version at the top of the first page.  At the same date, the printer and publisher changed from Henry Leigh Hunt to William Molineux (printer "for the proprietor") and George Lapham (publisher).  The paper was then owned and edited by Albany Fonblanque.
  • The phrase "taxes on knowledge", or "taxes upon knowledge", about the newspaper tax, had previously appeared in The Caledonian Mercury, June 7, 1827, in a paragraph credited to the Edinburgh Observer.  The earliest use we have seen of "tax upon knowledge" in reference to newspaper taxes, is in Saunders's News-Letter, Dublin, Feb. 28, 1786, in a report on the Irish House of Lords, which was mostly about franking.
  • The similar phrase "taxes on literature" appeared in the Westminster Review, April 1830, vol. 12, no. 24, p. 416-429 (link).
Nov. 23
General Post Office, November 23rd, 1830; A Table of the Rates of Postage from Bridgwater to the Principal Towns in England, Scotland, and Ireland, and to Foreign Countries, Exeter, 1830, 75 p.
  • Reported in St. Martin's-le-Grand, Jan. 1894, vol. 4, p. 78 (link).
This was evidently a generic publication; see Greenslade Taylor Hunt auctions, Taunton, Somerset, UK, Dec. 3, 2015, lot 281.
Nov. 30
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Nov. 30, 1830.
  • 21st Congress, 2nd Session, Documents accompanying the Message of the President of the United States, Dec. 6, 1830.
  • [Senate] US Serial Set, 203 S.doc.1/4, p. 51-54 (link).
  • [House] US Serial Set, 206 H.doc.2/4, p. 51-54 (link).
  • ASP, No. 96, p. 256-258 (link, link).
  • Register of Debates in Congress, Washington : Gales and Seaton, 1831, vol. 7, Appendix, p. xxii-xxiv (link).
  • Transcribed, see 1823.
(previous, next)

The Moral and Political Evils of the Taxes on Knowledge; expounded in, 1. the speeches delivered at the City of London Literary and Scientific Institution, on the subject of a petition to Parliament against the stamps on newspapers, the duty on advertisements, and on printing paper; 2. the petition presented to Parliament from the members of that institution; 3. a letter of the editor of The Scotsman to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, London : Effingham Wilson, 1830, 16 p.
  • http://books.google.com/books?id=1IHm2VYY8tAC  [British Library]
  • -- GK entry number 26543, Reel 2512.
  • The publication date is not specified.  The first item records an event of April 20, 1830.  The third item appeared in The Scotsman, March 24, 1830.  Some Parliamentary returns form an appendix.
  • The City of London Literary and Scientific Institution was founded in June 1825 (ref); Edwin Chadwick wrote its rules and regulations in 1830.

[Collection of material relating to Post Offices], London, 1830-1840.  -- Kansas






1831   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight, vol. 4, 1831, 72 p.
  • Stamps [revenue], Assessed Taxes, p. 34-36 (link).
  • General Post-Office, London, p. 66-71 (link).
(previous, next)

The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight, 1831, 240 p.
  • Common Carriers [mail contractors, etc.], p. 162-163 (link).  Act of July 23, 1830.
  • Stamp duties, p. 197 (link).
(previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1830-31.  (previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1831.   (previous, next)

Post office inquiry, Mr. Holmes's speech on Mr. Grundy's resolution, delivered in the Senate U.S., February 1831, Washington : Printed at the office of the National Journal, 1831, 27 p.
  • -- GK entry number 26977.17-1, Reel 2544.

Thomas Waghorn, Particulars of an Overland Journey from London to Bombay, by way of the Continent, Egypt, and the Red Sea, London : Parbury, Allen, 1831, 62 p.

Table of the Post Offices in the United States, Washington, 1831, viii + 359 p.  To Oct. 1, 1830, with supplement to April 1, 1831.
Jan. 29
[Francis Place], A Letter to a Minister of State, respecting Taxes on Knowledge, London, 1831.
For comparison, see also, Letter to Lord Viscount Althorp, on the Proposed Reduction in the Newspaper Stamp and Advertisement Duties, London, signed A.K.D., dated April 9, 1831 (link).
Feb. 20
[Edwin Chadwick], The Real Incendiaries and Promoters of Crime! [the exclamation point is in the original], The Examiner, London, Feb. 20, 1831, p. 114-116.
Apr. 6
The office of the Postmaster General of Ireland was eliminated, and merged into the office of the Postmaster General of the United Kingdom.  The previous Postmaster General of Scotland had been Deputy Postmaster General for Scotland since 1710.
July
[Edwin Chadwick], [Review of] The Moral and Political evils of the Taxes on Knowledge, ..., The Westminster Review, July 1831, vol. 15, no. 29, p. 238-267 (link). 
  • Complaints about the stamp duty and postage on newspapers, and (p. 261-264) the effects on letter postage.
  • Three publications are under review in this article, all of which are noted above.
Republished as a pamphlet, London : Robert Heward, 1831, 32 p.; reportedly, 5,000 copies were printed.
Sep.
Influence of the Newspapers, Fraser's Magazine for Town and Country, London, Sep. 1831, vol. 4, p. 127-142 (link); Oct. 1831, vol. 4, p. 310-321 (link).
  • The stamp duty and postage costs are considered, p. 133, 314-318.
Nov. 28
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Nov. 28, 1831.
  • 22nd Congress, 1st Session, Documents accompanying the Message of the President of the United States, Dec. 6, 1831.
  • [House] US Serial Set, 216 H.doc.2/4, p. 46-48 (link).
  • ASP, No. 111, p. 337-338 (link, link).
  • Transcribed, see 1823.
(previous, next)
Dec. 26
[William Cobbett], Manchester Lectures, Cobbett's Weekly Political Register, London, Dec. 31, 1831, vol. 75, no. 1, col. 1-31 (link).
  • Introduction, col. 1-3 (link).  The first lecture was delivered Dec. 26, 1831.
  • "9. To abolish all internal taxes (except on the land), whether direct or indirect, including stamp-taxes of every description; and to impose such a postage-charge for letters as to defray the real expenses of an economical and yet efficient post-office establishment, and no more; so that the postage would be merely a payment for the conveyance of letters, and not a tax." (col. 5, link).
See also, Proceedings of a Meeting of Englishmen, Irishmen, and Scotchmen, at New York, in America, on the 4th of July Last, Cobbett's Weekly Political Register, London, vol. 77, no. 8, Aug. 25, 1832, col. 483-487 (link).
?
P.C. O'Neill, A Brief Review of the Irish Post-Office from 1784 to 1831, when Sir Edward Lees was removed from that establishment, in a letter to the Right Honourable Lord Melbourne, 1831, 98 p.
  • -- GK entry number 26807, Reel 253.
See also,
  • Beatrice Bayley Butler, "John and Edward Lees, Secretaries of the Irish Post Office, 1774-1831", Dublin Historical Record, 1953, vol. 13, no. 3/4, p. 138-150, http://www.jstor.org/stable/30103817   [by fee or subscription].
  • Report from the Committee Appointed to Enquire Into Certain Abuses in the Post Office, London : House of Commons, 1787, 155 p., http://books.google.com/books?id=V6UrAQAAMAAJ  [UCSD].
John Lees was appointed Secretary of the Post Office in Ireland in 1774; the Irish Post office separated from the British Post Office in 1784.  Upon his death in 1811, John Lees was succeeded by his son Edward Smith Lees.  E.S. Lees held the post until 1831, when he was transferred a similar position to Edinburgh until his death in 1846.

The London Twopenny Post was extended to a distance of three miles from the General Post Office at St. Martin's-le-Grand.






1832   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight, vol. 5, 1832, 72 p.
  • Stamps [revenue], Assessed Taxes, p. 35-37 (link).
  • General Post-Office, London, p. 67-72 (link).
(previous, next)

The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight, 1832, 240 p.
  • A Chronological Account of the Connexion between England and India, p. 25-45 (link).  Continued, 1850, p. 70-79.
  • Statistics of America, Number of Post-Offices, Rates of Postage, etc., p. 122 (link).
  • Postmaster-General, p. 138 (link).  Act of Mar. 11, 1831.
  • Abstract of the Net Produce of the Revenue of Great Britain, p. 175 (link).
(previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1831-32.  (previous, next)

Report of the Select committee on Post communication with Ireland : with the minutes of evidence and appendix, London, 1832, 1842.

Scottish Jests and Anecdotes, to which are added, a selection of choice English and Irish Jests, Edinburgh : William Tait, 1832; preface dated Nov. 1831.
  • http://books.google.com/books?id=KPheAAAAcAAJ  [British Library]
  • p. 241.  Some time ago, a member of Parliament applied to the post-office, to know why some of his franks had been charged.  The answer was: "We supposed, sir, they were not of your writing; the hand is not the same."  "Why, not precisely the same; but the truth is, I happened to be a little tipsy when I wrote them."  "Then, sir, will you be so good, in future, to write 'drunk', when you make free.

Post-Handbuch für Berlin, Berlin : A.W. Hayn, 1832.

previous, next)

Jan. 1
The New South Wales Calendar, and General Post Office Directory, 1832, Sydney : Stephens and Stoke, 1832; preface date Jan. 1, 1832.  Compiled by James Raymond, the Principal Postmaster of the Territory.
  • A few images (link), brief summary (link), excerpt, 1832 (link), publication announcement, 1834 (link).
  • Continued as, New South Wales and Port Philip General Post Office Directory for 1839 (link).
March
[non-philatelic]
Rowland Hill, Home Colonies : Sketch of a Plan for the Gradual Extinction of Pauperism and for the Diminution of Crime, London : Simpkin and Marshall, 1832, 52 p.; preface date March 1832, published April 1832.
For the context of the pamphlet's origin, see Hill's biography (link).
April
Twenty-Second Report on the Revenue, Fraser's Magazine for Town and Country, London, Apr. 1832, vol. 5, p. 261-275 (link).
  • See above, Reports of the Commissioners of Inquiry into the Collection and Management of the Revenue Arising in Ireland and Great Britain, 1829, 1830.
  • Much discussion of steam-packets and the post office.
Apr. 7
Mémoire des entrepreneurs de messageries, appelants, contre les mâitres de poste, intimés, Ghent, 1832, 12 p.
May 1
Laws, Instructions and Forms for the Regulation of the Post-Office Department, Washington, 1832, 79 + [1] p.

Postal Laws and Regulations of the United States of America, 1832 & 1843, reprint by Theron Wierenga, 1980

June
National Political Union, Taxes on Knowledge, Debate in the House of Commons, on the 15th June, 1832, on Mr. Edward Lytton Bulwer's Motion "For a select committee to consider the propriety of establishing a cheap postage on Newspapers and other Publications", with a comment in the form of notes; and the article from the "Examiner" newspaper, of Sunday, 17th June, 1832, Southwark : W. Barnes, 1832, 48 p.
Rowland Hill joined a similar Association in 1834 (link, link).
June
France, Ministère des Finances, Instruction générale sur le service des postes, Paris : l'Imprimerie Royale, 1832.  (Nougaret 1882)

Same, Paris : Imprimerie Impériale, 1856, x + 486 p.  (Nougaret 1884)

France, Direction générale des postes, Instruction générale sur le service des postes.  (Nougaret 1886)

Previous editions, 1792, 1808, 1810 (see above).

Sep.
Wilhelm Heinrich Matthias, Über Posten und Post-Regale, Berlin, 1832; preface dated Sep. 1832.
Nov. 30
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Nov. 30, 1832.
(previous, next)
Dec. 1
The General Post Office, The Saturday Magazine, London, Dec. 1, 1832, vol. 1, p. 209-211 (link).






1833   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight, vol. 6, 1833, 72 p.
  • Stamps [revenue], Assessed Taxes, Penalties, p. 33-37 (link).
  • General Post-Office, London, p. 67-72 (link).
(previous, next)

The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight, 1833, 256 p.
  • Territorial revenues and charges of India for the year 1829-30, p. 100 (link).
  • Postage, p. 125-126 (link).  Act of Mar. 24, 1832.
  • Abstract of the Net Produce of the Revenue of Great Britain, p. 172 (link).
  • Chronicle of the Session of Parliament, 1831-2, June 14, 1832, p. 204 (link).  Resolutions by E.L. Bulwer.
(previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1833.   (previous, next)

J.R. [John Ramsay] McCulloch, A Treatise on the Principles, Practice, & History of Commerce, London : Baldwin and Cradock, 1833, 128 p.
  • Post Office, p. 24-25 (link).  "Nothing contributes more to facilitate commerce than the safe, speedy, and cheap conveyance of letters; and whatever has a tendency materially to lessen these advantages is hostile in the extreme to its interests."
Jan.
[Review of] Du Journalisme, Revue Encyclopédique, The Westminster Review, Jan. 1833, vol. 18, no. 35, p. 195-208 (link).
  • Comparison of French and British newspapers and taxes.
Jan. 5
London Post-Office, The Penny Magazine, Jan. 5, 1833, vol. 2, p. 6 (link).
  • The Penny Magazine was published by Charles Knight for the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.
Feb.
Taxes on Knowledge -- Duty on Paper -- Direct and Indirect Taxation, Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, Feb. 1833, vol. 2, p. 608-617 (link).
Apr.
[Arthur Symonds?], [Review of] London Gazette for the Year 1832, The Westminster Review, April 1833, vol. 18, no. 36, p. 474-493 (link).
  • Discussion of newspapers, stamp duty, and prepaid postage (p. 488-491).
May 1
Post Office Arrangements with France, Companion to the Newspaper, London : Charles Knight.
  • May 1, 1833, vol. 1, no. 4, p. 64 (link).
  • July 1, 1833, vol. 1, no. 6, p. 93 (link).
Nov. 9
Italian Letter-Writers, The Penny Magazine, Nov. 9, 1833, vol. 2, p. 436-438 (link).
Nov. 30
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Nov. 30, 1833.
  • 23rd Congress, 1st Session, Documents accompanying the Message of the President of the United States.
  • [Senate] US Serial Set, 238 S.doc.1/4, p. 286-292 (link).
  • [House] US Serial Set, 254 H.doc.1/7, p. 286-292 (link).
  • Transcribed, see 1823.
(previous, next)

The Penny Cyclopædia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, London : Charles Knight, 1833-1843, 27 vol. plus supplements, 1845-46, 1858.
See also, The English Cyclopædia, 1854-1862.

Charles Knight, The Struggles of a Book against Excessive Taxation, London, 1850, 15 p., reviews the tax consequences of publishing the Penny Cyclopedia (link).






1834   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight, vol. 7, 1834, 72 p.
  • Stamps [revenue], Assessed Taxes, p. 32-35 (link).
  • General Post-Office, London, p. 68-72 (link).
(previous, next)

The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight, 1834, 250 + ii p.
  • Stamp Duties on Advertisements, &c., p. 116-117 (link).  Act of June 28, 1833; stamp duties on pamphlets repealed.
  • Abstract of the Net Produce of the Revenue of Great Britain, p. 148 (link).
(previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1834.   (previous, next)
Jan.
The South Australian Land Company, formed in 1831, was reorganized as the South Australian Association in 1834.
  • The original Committee list of 1831 is given by Wakefield in his promotional work of 1834 (ref), 1835 (ref) and 1838 (ref).  The history up to 1839 is given by Stephens (ref).
  • In January 1834, the Committee of the South Australian Association included William Wolryche Whitmore, chairman, Henry L. Bulwer, William Clay, George Grote, treasurer, Matthew D. Hill, Rowland Hill, William Hutt, Samuel Mills, Jacob Montefiore, George Ward Norman, Dr. Southwood Smith, Col. Torrens, Henry G. Ward, etc. (newspaper notices, ref, ref, ref).
The South Australia Act 1834, Aug. 15, 1834, gave authority to form the colony, and to appoint The Colonization Commissioners for South Australia. 
  • News reports in Oct. and Nov. 1834 presented a list of commissioners -- William Wolryche-Whitmore, M.P.; George Grote, M.P.; George Warde Norman, bank director; Henry George Ward, M.P.; Col. Robert Torrens, M.P.; William Clay, M.P.; and, Matthew D. Hill, M.P., Rowland Hill's brother. 
    • Woolryche-Whitmore had introduced the South Australia Act in the House of Commons, but did not stand for reelection.  M.D. Hill took part in drafting the bill.
  • The Commissioners appointed May 4, 1835 (link) were Robert Torrens, William Alexander Mackinnon, M.P., William Hutt, M.P., John George Shaw Lefevre, George Palmer, jr., John Wright, Jacob Montefiore, Samuel Mills, George Fife Angas, and Edward Barnard.
    • Matthew Davenport Hill and William Hutt had been elected M.P. from Kingston-upon-Hull in Dec. 1832.  Hutt was reelected in Jan. 1835, while Torrens and Hill were not.
  • The Commissioners appointed Feb. 2, 1836 (link), were Lt. Col. Robert Torrens, William Alexander Mackinnon, M.P., William Hutt, M.P., John George Shaw Lefevre, George Palmer, jr., Jacob Montefiore, Samuel Mills, Edward Barnard, Josiah Roberts, and James Pennington.
  • Rowland Hill was appointed Secretary of the Commission in May 1835, and continued until his appointment to the Treasury in 1839.
Jan. 31
The History and Present State of the Post-Office, The Penny Magazine, Monthly Supplement, Jan. 31, 1834, vol. 3, p. 33-40 (link).
  • -- Crawford Catalogue, col. 677; British Library shelfmark Crawford 2611 (9).
Mar.
[Robert Wallace], Abuses of the Post-Office, Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, Mar. 1834, vol. 1 n.s., p. 96-101 (link).
  • Robert Wallace (1773-1855), in Parliament from 1832 to 1846, was a regular campaigner for postal reform, and provided assistance and inspiration to Rowland Hill.  "Is perpetually advocating the necessity of reform in the Post Office establishment and the Law Courts of Scotland." (ref)
Mar.
[Privileges of the Post-Office clerks with regard to newspapers], Companion to the Newspaper, London, March 1834, p. 48 [image].
Mar. 8 Transmission of Newspapers by Post, The Penny Magazine, Mar. 8, 1834, vol. 3, p. 96 (link).
Mar. 28
The Times, London, Mar. 28, 1834, p. 2 [image]. 
  • About newspaper postage.
Apr.
Needed Reform of the Post-Office, The Westminster Review, Apr. 1834, vol. 20, no. 40, p. 411-424 (link).
  • Extensive discussion of the Reports of the Commissioners of Inquiry into the Collection and Management of the Revenue Arising in Ireland and Great Britain, no. 18-22, 1829-1830.
May
Anon. [possibly Hannibal Evans Lloyd], Post Office Communication between England and Foreign Countries, [Review of] Treaty for the Conveyance of Letters between England and France, The Foreign Quarterly Review, May 1834, vol. 13, p. 397-405 (link).
May 22
Stamps on Newspapers, May 22, 1834.
  • Reports on a motion in the House of Commons by Edward Lytton Bulwer (the novelist, who later rearranged his names), with speeches by John Roebuck, Lord Althorp (Chancellor of the Exchequer), Matthew Davenport Hill (Rowland Hill's brother), James Buckingham, William Ewart, and George Grote.
The proposal was to eliminate the stamp duty on newspapers (4d. each with a 20% quantity discount), and to retain the duties on paper and advertising.  Since the newspaper stamp duty implied no additional charge for postage, some means of collecting postage would then be required.  Hill's economic analysis claims that, with an increase of newspaper circulation, no loss to the Treasury would occur.

The following are two excerpts from the speeches, noticing (by Bulwer) uniform postage by weight, not distance, and (by M.D. Hill) the first step toward a postage stamp.  The editor of the Mirror of Parliament, John Henry Barrow, employed experts in shorthand to record the proceedings, while Hansard is more of a summary.
Hansard's Parliamentary Debates, May 22, 1834, vol. 23, col. 1193-1223 (link).
  • [Mr. Bulwer]  "... he proposed to repeal the Stamp-duty on newspapers altogether; and, in the first place, he suggested the propriety of laying a cheap postage, not upon newspapers only, but upon all tracts, periodicals, and works of every description under a certain weight: he proposed, that this postage should be equal, whatever might be the distance, so that the remote parts of the country should possess the same advantage in obtaining knowledge, as those immediately in the vicinity of the metropolis [London]; and, therefore, requiring information less."  [col. 1201]
  • [Mr. Hill]  "Now, supposing that 1d. be paid for every paper sent by post that would yield a considerable sum; and, to put an end to any objections that might be made as to the difficulty of collecting the money, he would adopt the suggestion of a person well qualified to give an opinion on the subject — he alluded to Mr. Knight, the publisher.  That gentleman recommended that a stamped wrapper should be prepared for such newspapers as it was desired to send by post, and that each wrapper should be sold at the rate of 1d. by the distributors of stamps, in the same way as receipt-stamps."  [col. 1214]
The Mirror of Parliament, 1834, vol. 2, p. 1831-1839 (link).  Also published as a pamphlet, 12 p. (link).
  • [Mr. Bulwer]  "I propose, in the first place, to repeal the stamp duty on newspapers altogether, and to lay a cheap postage, not upon newspapers only, but on all tracts, periodicals, and works of every description under a certain weight.  I propose that this postage shall be as cheap as possible, and that it shall be equal, whatever be the distances, so that the distant parts of the country shall possess the same advantage in obtaining knowledge as those more connected with the metropolis [London], and, therefore, perhaps requiring information less."  [p. 1833]
  • [Mr. Hill]  "Now I should propose that 1d. be paid for every newspaper sent by post; and, to put an end to any objection that might be raised as to the trouble of collecting the postage, I would adopt the suggestion of a person well qualified to give an opinion upon this subject — I mean Mr. Knight the publisher.  That gentleman recommends that a stamped wrapper should be prepared for such newspapers as it is desired to send by post, and that such wrapper should be sold at the rate of 1d. by the distributors of stamps."  [p. 1837]
The motion failed.  The newspaper stamp duty was later reduced from 4d. to 1d. in 1836 (act of June 1835), and eliminated in June 1855. 

For news reports, see Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, Aug. 1834, p. 499-500 (link).  For later reports, see Charles Knight in The Athenæum, Jan. 3, 1863 (ref); Charles Knight's memoirs, vol. 2, p. 249-250 (ref); and M.D. Hill's biography, p. 130-131 (ref).
June 1
[Rowland Hill?], Stamp Duty on Newspapers, Companion to the Newspaper, London : Charles Knight, June 1, 1834, p. 108-110 [image].
  • The stamp duty on newspapers was a tax, evidenced by a red marking printed on the newspaper, and derided as a "tax on knowledge"; it also allowed the newspaper to pass through the mail with no additional payment of postage.  Eliminating the stamp duty would require some new means of collecting postage.
  • Charles Knight's suggestion of prepaid "stamped franks" (stamped newspaper wrappers) is mentioned on p. 109, "In order to allow the unstamped [i.e., not taxed] papers to pass through the Post-office, ...".  This eventually led to the suggestion of postage stamps by Rowland Hill.  The speech in Parliament on May 22, 1834, by Matthew Davenport Hill (see above), made use of the data in this article, which was written some months previously.
  • The author of this article is not identified, but Rowland Hill took credit for it in later years (ref), while Charles Knight did not (ref, ref).  The paper "was prepared several months ago for the information of some official personages", who were probably Lord Brougham (Lord Chancellor, Nov. 1830 to Nov. 1834) and Lord Althorp (Chancellor of the Exchequer, same period).  Knight had already suggested a penny stamped frank in a private letter to Althorp.
June 4-5
Taxes on Knowledge, Stamps on Newspapers, Extracts from the evidence of the Right Honourable Baron Brougham and Vaux, Lord High Chancellor of England, before the Select Committee of the House of Commons, on Libel Law, in June 1834, London : Childs, 1834, 8 p.
Henry Brougham (Lord Brougham, later Baron Brougham and Vaux) was Chairman of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, thus associated with the publisher Charles Knight.  He held the post of Lord Chancellor from Nov. 1830 to Nov. 1834.
July
Aristocratic Taxation, [Review of] The Finance Accounts of the United Kingdom, for the year 1833, The Westminster Review, July 1834, vol. 21, no. 41, p. 140-185 (link).
  • Stamp duties (p. 167-168), "Taxes on Knowledge" (p. 171, 174), and the Post Office (p. 171-174) are discussed.
July 12
Newspapers in Van Dieman's Land, The Printing Machine, London : Charles Knight, vol. 1, no. 10, July 12, 1834, p. 236-237 (link).
July 14
Report from the Select Committee on Steam Navigation to India, London, 1834.

See also, The Foreign Quarterly Review, Jan. 1837 (below).

Aug. 16
Smoke, The Printing Machine, London : Charles Knight, vol. 1, no. 12, Aug. 16, 1834, p. 285 (link).
  • Air pollution from the Prussian Post Office, solved in a manner we would now call a "chemical scrubber".
Aug.
According to claims by Patrick Chalmers in the 1880's and 1890's, his father James Chalmers of Dundee, Scotland, invented the adhesive postage stamp in Aug. 1834.  James Chalmers indeed made a proposal, but took few actions to implement it, and did not make his plan public until Nov. 1837.
Oct.
The "Unstamped Press" in London, Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, Oct. 1834, vol. 1 n.s., p. 614-625 (link).
Oct.
Lord Brougham's Evidence on the Newspaper Stamp Duty, Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, Oct. 1834, vol. 1 n.s., p. 625-628 (link).
Oct.
New Post-Office Arrangements, Companion to the Newspaper, London, Oct. 1834, p. 201-202 [image].
Oct.
Stamp Duties on Newspapers, Companion to the Newspaper, London, Oct. 1834, p. 206-209 [image].
Oct. 16
The British Houses of Parliament at Westminster caught fire as a result of dangerous conditions and "one of the greatest instances of stupidity upon record".
Nov. 29
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Nov. 29, 1834.
(previous, next)
Dec.
Fatherhood of the Unstamped, Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, Dec. 1834, vol. 1 n.s., p. 733-734 (link).






1835   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight, vol. 8, 1835, 96 + 8 p.
  • General Post-Office, London, p. 74-80 (link).
  • Stamps [revenue], Assessed Taxes, p. 91-94 (link).
(previous, next)

The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight, 1835, 263 p.
  • North American Postage, p. 129 (link).  Act of Mar. 26, 1834.
  • Newspapers, Postage, p. 144-146 (link).  Act of Aug. 13, 1834.
  • Almanacs, p. 150-151 (link).  Act of Aug. 13, 1834; stamp duty for almanacs and directories repealed.
  • Abstract of the Net Produce of the Revenue of Great Britain, p. 166 (link).
  • An Account of the Amount of Postage collected at the undermentioned Cities and Towns of the United Kingdom, p. 192 (link).
  • Chronicle of Events, Feb. 14, 1834, p. 255 (link).  "The Turkish government has decided on the establishment of a post for the regular conveyance of letters throughout Turkey."
(previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1835.   (previous, next)

The Post-Office Annual Directory and Calendar for 1835-6, Edinburgh : Printed by Ballantyne and co., 1835, 259 + lxxii p.
At head of title: Under the patronage of Sir Edward S. Lees, Secretary to the General Post-Office for Scotland.

United States Congress, Senate Committee on the Post Office and Post Roads, Reports, Washington, 1835.
Jan. 31

Constitutional Information, The Printing Machine, London : Charles Knight, vol. 3, no. 34, Jan. 31, 1835, p. 68-72 (link).
  • p. 69-70, "Post Paid" vs. "Postage Paid", carrying the mails (link).
Feb.
Francis O.J. Smith, A Letter Relating to the Administration and Present Condition of the Post Office Department of the United States, Portland (Maine), 1835, 23 p.
Feb. 12
A patent was granted "to Rowland Hill, of Tottenham, in the county of Middlesex, gentleman, for his invention of certain improvements in certain method of letter-press printing by machinery".
  • The Repertory of Patent Inventions, Sep. 1836, p. 129-151 (link).
Mar. 23
Speech of Henry, Lord Brougham, on the Stamp Duties on Newspapers, in the House of Lords, on Monday, the 23rd of March, 1835, London : Charles Knight, 1835, 16 p.
  • -- Crawford Catalogue, col. 61; British Library shelfmark Crawford 857 (10).
May?
Arthur W. Austin, A Memorandum Concerning the Charlestown [Massachusetts] Post-Office, [Boston, 1835], 23 p.
  • -- APN vol. 1, p. 87-109.
  • (Sabin 2394)
May
Rowland Hill appointed Secretary to The Colonization Commissioners for South Australia. 
May 9
Commissioners were appointed to inquire into the management of the British Post-Office Department, at the instigation of Robert Wallace.
  • Also known as the Commissioners of Post Office Inquiry.
  • Appointed by a Treasury Minute of May 9, 1835.
Ten reports were issued between 1835 and 1838, on Steam Vessels, Mail Coach Contracts, the French Post Office, etc.

First Report of Commissioners appointed to inquire into the Management of the Post-Office Department.
Second Report of Commissioners appointed to inquire into the Management of the Post-Office Department.
Third Report of Commissioners appointed to inquire into the Management of the Post-Office Department.

Reports made by the commissioners for inquiring into the Post Office Department, on the subject of mail-coach contracts.
House of Commons, Session 1835
1835 (313) XLVIII.399, 88 p.; PDF [ProQuest]
subject index (1840 index p. III.1-52)
June
In Britain, the Newspaper Stamp Duty was reduced to 1 penny; it was abolished in 1855.
Oct. 10
First announcement of the printed marking used on letters at the Northern Liberties News Room's Sub-Post Office in Philadelphia, Oct. 10, 1835.
  • These may or may not indicate prepayment of postage.  One interpretation is that they are carrier markings for mail going to the Philadelphia Post Office, while another would be akin to postal stationery as prestamped letter sheets.  The first case is argued in favor by Richard Frajola (link), while the second case is argued against by Siegel Auctions (link).  Calvet Hahn believed the marking to be "nothing more than an early handstamped hotel or newsroom marking" (link).
  • Northern Liberties was a small community and township near Philadelphia; today it is a neighborhood in Philadelphia.
Nov.
France, Ministère des finances, Administration des postes, Règlement concernant la constatation du produit des taxes de lettres, journaux et imprimes, admis dans la comptabilité des préposés des postes, sans l'intervention d'un controle exterieur, Paris : Imprimerie royale, 1835, 8 + 112 p.
Dec. 1
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Dec. 1, 1835.
(previous, next)

Overland mail from Britain to India established under Lt. Thomas Waghorn.  Some references, among many,






1836   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight, vol. 9, 1836, [12] + 96 p.
  • General Post-Office, London, p. 73-78 (link).
  • Stamps [revenue], Assessed Taxes, p. 91-93 (link).
(previous, next)

The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight, 1836, 250 + [2] p.
  • Stamps and Taxes Offices Consolidation, p. 115 (link).  Act of July 30, 1835.
  • Postage, p. 117 (link).  Act of Aug. 21, 1835; treatment of foreign mail.
  • Letter Stealing, p. 144 (link).  Act of 19 Sep. 1835; death penalty abolished.
  • Abstract of the Net Produce of the Revenue of Great Britain, p. 151 (link).
  • An Account of the Amount of Postage collected at the undermentioned Cities and Towns of the United Kingdom, p. 179 (link).
(previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1836.   (previous, next)

Parliamentary Papers, Reports from Commissioners, Pilotage and Post Office, for the session 4 Feb. - 20 Aug. 1836, vol. XXVIII.
The Fourth Report of the Commissioners appointed to inquire into the Management of the Post-Office Department, 23 July 1835, 67 p.
The Fifth Report of the Commissioners appointed to inquire into the Management of the Post-Office Department, 11 April 1836, 44 p.
The Sixth Report of the Commissioners appointed to inquire into the Management of the Post-Office Department, 30 April 1836, 303 p. + 4 maps.
House of Commons, Session 1836, Command Papers no. 49, 50, 51; total 419 p.  
Parliamentary Papers 1836 [49, 50, 51] vol. XXVIII, p. 33, 101, 145.
PDF [ProQuest]

For the First, Second and Third Reports, see the Eighteenth, Nineteenth and Twentieth Reports of Revenue Inquiry, 1829-30.

[A Collection of Minutes and Reports, Newspaper-Cuttings and Manuscripts relating to the administration of the Post Office from 1836 to 1868. With copious MS. notes and corrections by Sir Rowland Hill.]

Cary's new plan of London and its vicinity, 1836 : shewing the limits of the two-penny post delivery.

John Crawfurd, The Newspaper Stamp, and the Newspaper Postage Compared, London : J. Reed, 1836, 22 p.

[John Ramsay McCollouch], Observations, Illustrative of the Practical Operation and Real Effect of the Duties of Paper, London : Longman, 1836, 38 + [samples] p.

C.M. [Charles Molloy] Westmacott, The Stamp Duties, Serious Considerations on the Proposed Alteration of the Stamp Duty on Newspapers, addressed to the Right Honourable Thomas Spring Rice, Chancellor of the Exchequer, London, 1836, 15 p.

The Newspaper Stamp and Advertisement Duties, a form of a Petition to Parliament, London, 1836, 10 p.
Jan.
W.E.H. [William Edward Hickson], Reduction, or Abolition, of the Stamp-duty on Newspapers, The London Review, Jan. 1836, vol. 2, no. 4, p. 336-355 (link) (erratum).
  • reprinted as a pamphlet, London : C. Ely.
Jan./Feb.
John Crawfurd, Taxes on Knowledge, A Financial and Historical View of the Taxes which Impede the Education of the People, London : Charles Ely, 1836, 63 p.
  • Mentioned and extensively quoted by Knight, The Newspaper Stamp, Mar. 1836 (see below).
  • "The taxes on knowledge may be enumerated as follow -- the stamp duty on newspapers, the advertisement duty, the import duty on the raw materials used in paper-making, writing and printing, the excise duty on paper, and the extra duty on stained paper, the duty on foreign books, the copies of printed books given to public libraries, and the tax imposed on the diffusion of writings and printed works through the monopoly of the Post-office." (p. 3)
  • The advertisement duty was repealed Aug. 4, 1853.  The newspaper stamp duty was reduced Aug. 13, 1836 and then repealed June 15, 1855.  The paper duty was repealed Oct. 1, 1861.
Feb.?
Proceedings of a Convention of Delegates ... on the Subject of the Location of the Post Office [in New York City], New York : James van Norden, 1836.
  • -- APN vol. 1, p. 111-128.
  • The New York City main Post Office was destroyed in an extensive fire in Dec. 1835 (Wikipedia).
Feb.?
'Cincinnatus', Freedom's Defence: Or a Candid Examination of Mr. [John C.] Calhoun's Report on the Freedom of the Press, Worcester (Mass.), 1836, 24 p.
Feb. 6
First meeting of the committee which founded the Reform Club, London.  The first formal meeting of the committee was May 5, and the Club first opened to members on May 24, 1836.
  • A precursor, the Westminster Club, in 1834, included Robert Wallace, M.P. (ref).
  • The 1836 Committee included John Crawfurd, George Grote, Charles Shaw Lefevre, James Morrison, etc.  Early members included Charles Pelham Villiers, M.P., Richard Cobden, Antonio Panizzi, etc.
  • The 1839-40 Reform Club membership list included William Henry Ashurst, John Bowring [Jeremy Bentham's literary executor], Edward Lytton Bulwer, Edwin Chadwick, George Chetwynd, Richard Cobden, Henry Cole, John Crawfurd, Charles W. [Wentworth] Dilke, John Dillon, John Edward Gray [which one?], George Grote, William Edward Hickson, Matthew Davenport Hill, Swynfen Jervis [grandfather of Thornton Lewes], Charles Knight, Charles Shaw Lefevre, Lord Monteagle [Thomas Spring Rice], James Morrison, Antonio Panizzi, Col. Robert Torrens, Robert Wallace, etc.  William Makepeace Thackeray joined Mar. 11, 1840 (ref).
  • The 1854 list included Ashurst, Cobden, Thomas and Warren De La Rue, Dillon, Grote, Hickson, M.D. Hill, Rowland Hill, Morrison, Torrens.
  • For more, see, Louis Fagan, 1836-1886, The Reform Club, Its Founders and Architect, London, 1887, http://books.google.com/books?id=HthCAQAAMAAJ  [Minnesota]
Feb. 20
Newspaper Stamps.  Deputation to Lord Viscount Melbourne, to procure the total repeal of the Stamp Duty on Newspapers, Cleave's Gazette, Feb. 20, 1836.
  • reprinted as a pamphlet, London : C. Ely, http://books.google.com/books?id=8jBcAAAAQAAJ  [Oxford] (incomplete)
  • The deputation included thirty members of the House of Commons, plus Dr. George Birkbeck, John Crawfurd, W.E. Hickson, [?] Chapman, and Francis Place.
Mar. 12
[Charles Knight], The Newspaper Stamp, and the Duty on Paper, Viewed in Relation to Their Effects upon the Diffusion of Knowledge, London : Charles Knight, 1836, 64 p.; dated March 12, 1836, p. 57.
  • Stamp duty on newspapers, p. 23-49 (link); Post-Office monopoly, p. 44-50 (link).
Mar. 12
F.P. [Francis Place], The Stamp Duty on Newspapers, The Radical, London, Mar. 12, 1836.
Apr.
W.E.H. [William Edward Hickson], Proposed Reduction of the Stamp Duty on Newspapers, The London and Westminster Review, April 1836, vol. 25, p. 264-270 (link).
Reprinted as "Mr. Spring Rice and his Penny Stamp", 1836, 8 p.
Apr. 30
John Bowring, Report on the Commerce and Manufactures of Switzerland, London, 1836, 148 p.
July 1
Table of the Post Offices in the United States, Washington : Blair and Rives, 1836, 183 p.
  • Francis P. Blair, father of Montgomery Blair, who was US Postmaster General from 1861 to 1864.
  • John C. Rives, published Postal Laws in 1857, 1859
July 10
Sir Francis Freeling, Secretary to the British General Post Office since 1797, died July 10, 1836.  During his tenure, the General Post Office and the Penny Posts were expanded, internal management was improved, and postage rates were increased in 1801, 1805 and 1812.  The Post Office was regarded more as a source of revenue for the Government than as a service to the public.
  • The Annual Biography and Obituary, vol. 21, p. 232-235 (link).
  • Freeling's personal library, sold at auction, Nov. 1836 (link); priced and named (link).
    • Anthony Trollope bought lot 72 (link).
July 21
House of Commons, Debates, July 21, 1836 (link).
  • Robert Wallace listed actions to be taken for reform of the British Post Office, with a response from the Chancellor of the Exchequer (Thomas Spring Rice).
Aug. 13
Reduction of the British newspaper stamp duty from (about) 3¼d. to 1d., and a consequent increase of newspaper transmission by the Post.  The duty had been nominally 4d., but discounts were offered.  The reduction was implemented by Thomas Spring Rice, Chancellor of the Exchequer, by an Act of Aug. 13, 1836.  See also, Taxes on knowledge.  The 1d. duty was removed in June 1855.
Nov.
The Liberal Newspapers -- Effects of the Reduction of Stamp-Duty, Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, Nov. 1836, vol. 3 n.s., p. 685-692 (link); Dec. 1836, p. 799-808 (link).
Dec. 5
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Dec. 5, 1836.
(previous, next)
Dec. 15
The Post Office building in Washington, DC, burned.  It was replaced by a new building in the same location, E Street north, between 7th and 8th Streets, completed in 1841.  Many, perhaps most, of the old records of the Post Office were lost in the fire.






1837   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight & Co., vol. 10, 1837, 96 p.
  • General Post-Office, London, pp. 73-79 (link).
  • Stamps [revenue], Assessed Taxes, pp. 92-94 (link).
(previous, next)

The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight & Co., 1837, 258 p.
  • Post Office Convention between Great Britain and France, p. 60-62 (link); see also Chronicle of Events, Apr. 5, 1836, p. 253 (link).
  • Letter Stealing, Scotland, p. 116 (link).  Act of June 21, 1836.
  • Postage on Newspapers, pp. 124-125 (link);  Stamps on Newspapers, pp. 134-137 (link).  Acts of Aug. 13, 1836.
  • Abstract of the Net Produce of the Revenue of Great Britain, p. 153 (link)
  • Post-Office Revenue, p. 154 (link).
  • An Account of the Amount of Postage collected at the undermentioned Cities and Towns of the United Kingdom, p. 178 (link).
(previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1837.   (previous, next)

The Seventh Report of the Commissioners appointed to inquire into the Management of the Post-Office Department.

House of Commons, Session 1837, command paper no. 70, 142 p.  
Parliamentary Papers 1837 [70] vol. XXXIV Pt. I, p. 263.
PDF [ProQuest]

The Eighth Report of the Commissioners appointed to inquire into the Management of the Post-Office Department.

House of Commons, Session 1837, command paper no. 85, 26 p.  
Parliamentary Papers 1837 [85] vol. XXXIV Pt. I, p. 405.
PDF [ProQuest]

The Post Office Annual Directory and Calendar, for 1837..., containing an alphabetical list of the nobility, gentry, merchants, and others in Dublin and vicinity ... with a variety of useful information, Dublin : printed for the Letter Carriers of the General Post Office, by John S. Folds, 1837, 12 + 72 + 478 + 22 p.
  • -- GK Reel 37 (463).

Post-Handbuch für Berlin, Berlin : A.W. Hayn, 1837, x + 436 + [2] p.

(previous, next)


Dictionnaire des postes aux lettres, Paris : l'Imprimerie Royale, 1837, 84 + 883 p.

Also, 1835, 1845.

Jan.
Rowland Hill, Post Office Reform, Its Importance and Practicability, London, "Private and confidential", privately printed by W. Clowes and Sons, 1837, (2) + 73 p.
  • From the Third edition, 1837, p. 48, "As the first edition of this little work was written before the close of 1836, ..." (link).
  • From the Second edition, 1837, p. iii, "A small edition of this little pamphlet was printed, and privately circulated, early in the month of January."  (link)
  • Chancellor of the Exchequer Thomas Spring Rice acknowledged receipt of the pamphlet on Jan. 4 [Fryer & Akerman, vol. 2, p. 746].
  • This preliminary edition was intended to gather comments from friends and family, before wider circulation.  Postage stamps were not included in this version.  Spring Rice requested some additional information, which Hill supplied in a private memorandum ("supplementary paper") sent on Jan. 28, 1837; this included stamped covers (ref).  A second letter to Spring Rice included postage stamps (ref).  Shortly afterward, Hill submitted his plans, now including adhesive postage stamps, to the Commissioners of Post Office Inquiry on Feb. 13, 1837.  He acknowledged the suggestion by Charles Knight in 1834 for stamped newspaper wrappers.  See the Commission's Ninth Report, July 7, 1837.
  • http://books.google.com/books?id=PJQIAAAAQAAJ  [Oxford]  (inscribed to Edwin Hill, from the Author, and later G.B. Hill)
  • -- GK entry number 30105, Reel 2785.  [Goldsmiths' Library, Univ. of London] (link)
    • ULL copy bound in a volume lettered: Miscellaneous Economic Pamphlets, 1835-38.
  • -- Crawford Catalogue, col. 185.
  • British Library shelfmark Crawford 1117; ex- E.D. Bacon, with an annotation
  • -- British Library shelfmark General Reference Collection C.T.199.(10.)
  • -- British Library shelfmark General Reference Collection C.57.I.15
  • -- King's College London, inscribed "Professor Wheatstone from the Author", to Sir Charles Wheatstone (link)
  • Durham University Library, Earl Grey Pamphlets Collection, http://www.jstor.org/stable/60225854
  • -- Columbia Univ. Library (link)
  • Christie's, New York, June 17, 2008, Sale 2013, lot 178, inscribed to Frederic Hill, from the Author, realized $10,000 (link)
  • Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1067, inscribed "John Dillon Esq., from the author", realized £2,070 (link)
[Second ed.], London : Charles Knight and Co., 1837, vii + (1) + 104 p.; preface dated Feb. 22, 1837.
Version A - No statement of edition on title page; "Price Two Shillings." at bottom of the cover.
Version Aa - No statement of edition on title page; "Price Two Shillings sewed." at bottom of the cover.
Version B - "Second edition" on title page and cover; no statement of price.
  • Postage stamps were now included, p. 41-46, the idea derived from a proposal of Charles Knight in 1834.
  • Hill notes, on p. 96, that uniform prepaid postage is already established in Bengal and Madras, without complaint or ill-effects.
  • The preface is dated "2, Burton Crescent, Feb. 22, 1837", which was Rowland Hill's home address in Bayswater.
  • Advertised, all 1837
    • "This day is published, price 2s. sewed, Post-Office Reform; its Importance and Practicability.  By Rowland Hill.  London : Charles Knight and Co., 22, Ludgate-street.",
      • The Morning Post, London, Mar. 17.
      • The Constitutional and Public Ledger, London, Mar. 17.
      • London Evening Standard, Mar. 18.
      • The Spectator, Mar. 18 (link).
    • "Price 2s., sewed, Post Office Reform; its Importance and Practicability.  By Rowland Hill.  London : Charles Knight and Co., 22, Ludgate-street.",
      • The Courier, London, Mar. 17.
  • Reviewed, all 1837
    • The Courier, London, Mar. 18.  Copied by the Manchester Times, Mar. 25.
    • The Constitutional, London, Mar. 24.
    • The Globe, London, Mar. 25.
    • The Spectator, Mar. 25 (link).  Copied by the Worcester Journal, Mar. 30; the Hereford Times, Apr. 1.
    • The Morning Chronicle, Mar. 31.  Copied by The Examiner, Apr. 2; the Bradford Observer, Apr. 6; the Carlisle Journal, Apr. 8; the Leicestershire Mercury, Apr. 8; the Newcastle Courant, Apr. 14; the Taunton Courier, Apr. 19.
      • Morning Chronicle, Apr. 3, letter to the editor from Rowland Hill
    • The Kendal Mercury, Apr. 1.
    • The Oxford Chronicle and Reading Gazette, Apr. 1.
    • The Gloucester Journal, Apr. 1.
    • The Morning Advertiser, Apr. 1; Apr. 19.
    • The Wiltshire Independent, Apr. 6.
    • etc.
    • The Athenæum, May 6 (link).
    • etc.
    • The Fife Herald, Nov. 2, lengthy.
  • -- APRL, G5741 .P856 H647p 1837b (Rare Books)  (version A)
    • Inscribed, on the inside front cover, to "Edward Kendall, Esq.  With Mr. Wallace's best compliments, and requests that Mr. Kendall will examine this work carefully and get his opinions published.  London 22 March 1837".
  • -- NPM, HE6935 .H64 1837 (Rare Books)  (version A)
    • Without cover; bound with The State and Prospects of Penny Postage (1844).
    • Inscribed "The only material additions or modifications in this Edition consist of the Preface & of pp. 36-46, 56-61, & 83-end."
    • In a different hand, in pencil, "Author's copy".
  • http://archive.org/details/cihm_21617  [Canada, Public Archives]  (version Aa)
  • -- GK entry number 30106, Reel 2785.  [Goldsmiths' Library, Univ. of London] (link)  (version A)
  • -- Crawford Catalogue, col. 185.
  • British Library shelfmark Crawford 1118 (1).  (version A)
    • With a note from Robert Wallace (or his secretary), "To the Editor of <blank>, With Mr. Wallace's best respects, an earnest request that ...", requesting a review, dated London 17 March 1837.  In the same hand as the APRL inscription.
  • British Library shelfmark Crawford 1118 (2).  (version B)
  • -- British Library shelfmark General Reference Collection T.2407.(5.)
  • -- Univ. of Reading, ex- J.R.McCulloch (see below)
  • -- London Institution, donated by the author, Mar. 28, 1837 (link)
    • After the London Institution closed in 1912, its library was divided between the British Museum, the Guildhall Library, and the School of Oriental Studies at the University of London.  Some of the books later went to King's College, London.
  • A facsimile (of version A, but not an exact reproduction) appears in Pearson Hill, The Post Office of Fifty Years Ago, 1887, after p. 48, http://archive.org/details/postofficeoffift00hilluoft.
  • A transcription of Version B appears in Fryer & Akerman, vol. 1, p. 1-46.
  • Version B, title page illustrated in Andreas Hahn, Die Erfindung der Briefmarke = The invention of stamps, 2008, fig. 8, p. 30.
  • Christie's Robson Lowe, London, Mar. 13, 1990, Sale 4239, lot 1086, 1837 (March 28) a.l.s. [autograph letter sheet] from [Rowland Hill at] 6 Adelphi Terrace to John Shuttleworth sending a copy of Post Office Reform and asking if "the Chamber of Commerce would be interested to take it up?".  Mentions Government support, interviews with the Chancellor of the Exchequer and the Post Office Commissioners.  "The use of stampt covers (see page 41 of the new edition) is particularly liked by the Governt.  Mr John Wood of the Stamp Office likes it much ...".  2 1/2 pp.  A letter of considerable importance.  Est. £350., sold £500 + 10%.
    • John Shuttleworth was a merchant in Manchester.
  • Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1066, inscribed "John Dillon Esq., from the author", realized £2,875 (link).
    • "the covers with some faults and three later binding punctures"
  • Christie's, London, June 7, 2005, Sale 5621, lot 379, realized £2,400 (link).
Third ed., London : Charles Knight and Co., 1837, x + 97 p.; preface dated Nov. 15, 1837.
"Third edition" on title page and front wrapper.
Version A - On p. vii, the last footnote is ¶ Page 112.
Version B - On p. vii, the last footnote is ¶ Page 121.
  • Between 112 and 121, 121 is correct; Hill was evidently using one of the official reprints of the 1797 Palmer report made in 1807, 1808 or 1813 (link).  The quote that is cited appears on p. 192 of the original.
  • Some typographical errors remained uncorrected, such as Hamdstead on p. 35.  The footnote symbol || is omitted on p. vii.
  • The preface is dated "2, Burton Crescent, Nov. 15th, 1837".
  • Grosvenor Philatelic Auctions, May 26, 2005, Sale 22, Lot 231, ''POST OFFICE REFORM; ITS IMPORTANCE AND PRACTICABILITY'' by Rowland Hill, third edition, 97 pages plus preface and including the 1d. letter sheet essay in yellow-buff by John Dickinson, binding removed but a fine and clean example of this scarce publication.  Price Realised £480; previously offered in Sale 17, May 25, 2004, unsold.
Fourth ed., London : Charles Knight and Co., 1838, x + 97 p.
"Fourth edition" and "1838" on the cover and title page, otherwise identical to the Third ed.
  • -- British Library shelfmark General Reference Collection C.T.228.(1.)
  • -- Crawford Catalogue, col. 185.  This refers to the item in the British Museum (now in the British Library); it is not in the Crawford collection itself.
  • -- LCP, http://dc02kg0540na.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com (without cover)
  • -- Boston Public Library (in 1900), http://books.google.com/books?id=cG0aAAAAYAAJ
  • Robinson explains why the fourth edition might exist but probably does not.  In fact, it does exist.
    • Howard Robinson, The British Post Office, A History, Princeton, 1948, p. 262-264.
  • Grimwood-Taylor discusses the fourth edition in detail.
    • James L. Grimwood-Taylor, The British Postal Reforms of 1839 to 1840, 1990, Chapter 4.
  • This is not exactly identical to the Third Edition, comparing the two at the Library Company of Philadelphia.  On the title page, the first line ends with a semi-colon (3rd) or a colon (4th).  The contents, though, do appear to be identical to the Third Edition version B.
See also, Rowland Hill, History of Penny Postage, http://books.google.com/books?id=rQZDAAAAIAAJ

There are further items sold at auction or privately, which are related or do not indicate which edition.  See, for example, http://www.christies.com/, http://www.grosvenorauctions.com/, http://www.cavendish-auctions.com/, etc.

Some biblio-biographical notes.

  • Charles Knight and Rowland Hill had long been associated from The Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, which sponsored the British Almanac and the Penny Magazine, and from Hill's work on a Rotatory Printing Machine (1835).  Knight had proposed the use of stamped newspaper wrappers in 1834.
  • According to Hill family lore, "From childhood he had often heard his father express an opinion that the rate of postage was too high, ..., and the evils of dear postage were for years a topic of conversation in the family circle." (ref).  "The year 1835 brought a large surplus in the revenue, and various suggestions for reducing taxation were afloat.  It occurred to Mr. Rowland Hill, in whose thoughts the question of postal improvement had long dwelt, ..." (ref).
  • John Dillon (1792-1868) was a member of the London Mercantile Committee on Postage.  He was a business partner of the merchant James Morrison, and both were associated with the solicitor William Henry Ashurst.  Morrison had first met Matthew Davenport Hill in 1827.  Morrison, Dillon and Ashurst all sent their sons to the Hill family school at Bruce Castle, Tottenham.  The Reform Club membership (since 1836) included Morrison, Dillon, Ashurst, M.D. Hill and Frederick Hill.
    • Caroline Dakers, A Genius for Money, Yale Univ. Press, 2011; biography of James Morrison.  Morrison was further acquainted with Thomas Spring Rice, Henry Brougham, etc.
  • On p. 89 of the second edition, Hill says "For the following statement, with reference to this part of the subject, I am indebted to Mr. Dillon, of the house of Morrison and Co."  Dillon's name does not appear in the first edition, although he did receive it.  About John Dillon and James Morrison, see here, here and here.  For Dillon's extensive collection of books on post office reform, see lot 480 in the sale catalogue of his library in June 1869 (link); he also had collections of autograph letters and manuscripts (link), and ancient and modern engravings (link).
  • Rowland Hill was at the time (May 1835 to Sep. 16, 1839) Secretary to the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia, with offices, since July 1835, at 6 Adelphi Terrace, London (ref, ref, ref).  Following passage of the Penny Postage Act, Hill went to work for the Treasury, pointedly not for the Post Office directly, and only for two years in a temporary appointment.
Some later reviews, or commentaries,
  • J.R. McCulloch, The Literature of Political Economy, London : Longman, 1845, p. 339-340 (link).  See also, McCulloch's 1856 library catalogue (link), 1862 library catalogue (link), and the 1867 catalogue of the Library of Overstone Park (link), which now resides at the University of Reading (link).

For further library holdings, see

Jan.
[Review of] Report from the Select Committee on Steam Navigation to India, The Foreign Quarterly Review, London, Jan. 1837, vol. 18, p. 342-392 (link). 
  • Includes, review of Der Begleiter auf der Donaufahrt von Wien bis zum schwarzen Meere, The Companion to a Voyage down the Danube, from Vienna to the Black Sea.
Jan.
Samuel Lover, Handy Andy, Bentley's Miscellany, London, Jan. 1837, vol. 1, pp. 20-29 (link).
  • Andy goes to the Post Office for his Squire, and argues postage fees with the postmaster, pp. 27-29 (link).
  • Continued, pp. 169-177.
Feb.
[Robert Wallace], The Post-Office and its Abuses, with Hints for Improvement, Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, Feb. 1837, vol. 4 n.s., pp. 81-88 (link).

Capt. [Robert] Melville Grindlay, A View of the Present State of the Question as to Steam Communication with India, London : Smith, Elder and Co.
Mar. 25
A Great Reform, and the Bureaucracy, The Spectator, Mar. 25, 1837, vol. 10, p. 275-277 (link).
Mar. 31
A Looking-Glass for London, No. VIII, External and Internal Communication [Mail Coach Routes], The Penny Magazine, Monthly Supplement, Mar. 31, 1837, vol. 6, p. 113-120 (link).
  • References to previous notes in vol. 3 (link) and vol. 4 (link).
  • Quotes from Rowland Hill's Post Office Reform, "just published".
Apr. 2
Reduction of Postage, The Examiner, Apr. 2, 1837, p. 212.
May 6
Post Office Reform, By Rowland Hill, The Athenæum, May 6, 1837, p. 320 (link).
May 20
New System of Postage, Chambers's Edinburgh Journal, May 20, 1837, pp. 131-132.
June 3
The Post-Office "Express:" Penny Letters, The Spectator, June 3, 1837, vol. 10, p. 512-513 (link).
June 20
Victoria becomes Queen of England, succeeding William IV.  The formal coronation was June 28, 1838.
July 1
The first Traveling Post-Office in Britain, on the Grand Junction Railway between Liverpool and Birmingham.
July 7
The Ninth Report of the Commissioners appointed to inquire into the Management of the Post-Office Department, London : House of Commons, July 7, 1837, 137 p.  + maps.

House of Commons, Session 1837, command paper no. 99, 129 p.
Parliamentary Papers 1837 [99] vol. XXXIV Pt.I.431
PDF [ProQuest]
  • Rowland Hill's testimony on Feb. 13, 1837, p. 26-34, occurred between the first and second editions of his Post-Office Reform.  This was his first public proposal for stamped covers (p. 32) and adhesive postage stamps (p. 33).
Cavendish Philatelic Auctions, Sale 702, lots 2014, 2015.
  • THE FIRST ESSAY OF ALL - THE 1d "LONDON DISTRICT POST" WRAPPER BY CHARLES WHITING; Fine 1837 1d yellow-ochre example of the letter-sheet (folded as a cover) printed by Charles Whiting & Co. on Dickinson silk-thread paper; originally produced for the July 1837 Government P.O. Report - examples were also included in late editions of Rowland Hill's famous P.O. Reform pamphlet. The Number One of British Essays along with the 2d value (see next lot). 
  • THE FIRST ESSAY OF ALL - THE 2d "LONDON DISTRICT POST" WRAPPER BY CHARLES WHITING; Fine 1837 2d Green example of the letter-sheet (folded as always) printed by Charles Whiting & Co. on Dickinson silk-thread paper; originally produced for the July 1837 Government P.O. Report. Intriguingly there is a partial albino 23 May 1864 c.d.s. impression through the two flaps, showing that this letter-sheet was posted in this folded form inside another envelope some 27 years after it was printed. Perhaps Rowland Hill was looking at it again and sent it through the post to a friend (he retired from the P.O. in March 1864)?! The Number One of British Essays along with the 1d value (see previous lot).
July
Universal Penny Postage, Monthly Repository, July 1837, pp. 65-66.
July 12
The British Parliament receives Royal Assent for five Acts revising Post Office procedures, all effective Aug. 1, 1837.
  • An Act to repeal the several Laws relating to the Post Office, 7 Will. 4 & 1 Vict. c. 32.
  • An Act for the Management of the Post Office, 7 Will. 4 & 1 Vict. c. 33.
  • An Act for the Regulation of the Duties of Postage, 7 Will. 4 & 1 Vict. c. 34.
  • An Act for regulating the sending and receiving of Letters and Packets by the Post free from the Duty of Postage, 7 Will. 4 & 1 Vict. c. 35.
  • An Act for consolidating the Laws relative to Offences against the Post Office of the United Kingdom, and for regulating the judicial Administration of the Post Office Laws, and for explaining certain Terms and Expressions employed in those Laws, 7 Will. 4 & 1 Vict. c. 36.
July 15
Report from the Select Committee on Steam Communication with India.
July 15
Table of the Post Offices in the United States, Washington : Langtree & O'Sullivan, 1837, 191 p.
Aug.
Practical Science, Applied to the Reform of the Post-Office, The Magazine of Popular Science, Aug. 1837, vol. 4, pp. 144-148 (link).
Sep.
Robert Wallace, letter to the editor, The Scotsman.  Copied, Kendal Mercury, Sep. 9, 1837.
Sep. 9
Post Office Improvement, The Spectator, Sep. 9, 1837, vol. 10, p. 852-853 (link).
Sep. 16
The Twopenny Post, The Spectator, Sep. 16, 1837, vol. 10, p. 875-876 (link).
Oct. 21
Cheap Postage for the Metropolis, The Spectator, Oct. 21, 1837, vol. 10, p. 992-994 (link).
Nov. 23
On 23 November 1837 the British government announced that "a Select Committee is to be appointed to inquire into the present rates and mode of charging postage, with a view to such a reduction thereof as may be made without injury to the revenue and for this purpose to examine especially into the mode recommended for charging and collecting postage in a pamphlet published by Mr Rowland Hill."   The committee published its final report in March 1839 and it was agreed by Parliament on 12 July 1839.
Dec. 2
Post-Office Improvement, The Spectator, Dec. 2, 1837, vol. 10, p. 1141 (link).
Dec. 3
Postage Committee, The Examiner, Dec. 3, 1837, pp. 777-778.
Dec. 4
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Dec. 4, 1837.
(previous, next)






1838   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight & Co., vol. 11, 1838, 96 p.
  • General Post-Office, London, pp. 73-83 (link).
    • List of Persons privileged under the General Franking Act, p. 75-76 (link).
    • Transmission of letters by private individuals, p. 76-77 (link).
    • H.M. Packets at Falmouth, p. 83 (link).
  • Stamps [revenue], Assessed Taxes, pp. 92-94 (link).
(previous, next)

The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight & Co., 1838, 248 p.
  • New System of Twopenny Post, pp. 115-120 (link).
    • A summary of Rowland Hill's Post-Office Reform, Charles Knight's newspaper wrapper proposal, etc.
  • Post Office Acts, Post Office - Management, Postage Duties, Packet Rates, Franking, Post Office - Offences and Administration, pp. 140-146 (link).  Acts of July 12, 1837.
  • Abstract of the Net Produce of the Revenue of Great Britain, Gross Income of the General Post-Office, p. 170-171 (link).
  • An Account of the Amount of Postage collected at the undermentioned Cities and Towns of the United Kingdom, p. 196 (link); Letters sent to France, p. 197 (link).
(previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1837-38.  (previous, next)

The American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge, for the Year 1838, Boston : Charles Bowen, vol. 9, 1837, 336 p.; preface dated Sep. 11, 1837.
  • Post-office Establishment, p. 137-139 (link).
  • General Post-Office, p. 147 (link).
(previous, next)

Acts of Parliament Relating to the Post Office, From 9 Anne to 1 Victoria, 1710-1837, London, 1838.

Reprinted 1977, The Britannia Stamp Bureau, Tiverton, Devon, England, [14] + 312 + [137] p.
  • -- APRL, GOV DOC

J.R. [John Ramsay] McCulloch [M'Culloch], A Dictionary, Practical, Theoretical, and Historical, of Commerce and Commercial Navigation, London : Longman, 1832, 1835, 1838, 1839, etc.
Many other editions were published, also with an American version. 
  • Rowland Hill took offense (ref) to some of the remarks in the 1839 supplement, which were addressed in the 1840 supplement.

W.H. [William Henry] Ashurst, Facts and Reasons In Support of Mr. Rowland Hill's Plan for a Universal Penny Postage, London : Henry Hooper, 1838.

First ed., 1838, viii + 92 p.
  • -- GK entry number 30666.3, Reel 2815.
Second ed., 1838, viii + 133 p., preface dated June 1838. See also, more details.

The law firm founded in 1822 by W.H. Ashurst (1791-1855) still exists as Ashurst LLP.  His son, also named William Henry Ashurst (1819-1879), was a student at Bruce Castle School in 1836, and was later employed as Solicitor to the Post Office, 1862-79.

James MacQueen, A general plan for a mail communication by steam, between Great Britain and the eastern and western parts of the world; also to Canton and Sydney, westward by the Pacific: to which are added, geographical notices of the Isthmus of Panama, Nicaragua, &c., London : B. Fellowes, 1838, xii + 132 p.
  • --  British Library shelfmark 1136.h.14

A. Piron, Du Service des Postes et de la Taxation des lettres au moyen d'un timbre, Paris : H. Fournier, 1838, 148 p.
  • Piron described de Velayer's private postal service in Paris in 1653, and promoted uniform postage rates.
See also, Cl. Grasset, Abrégé de l'ouvrage intitulé : "Du Service des postes et de la taxation des lettres au moyen d'un timbre", Sep. 1839, 10 p., http://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb30535339x and http://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb363763144.

Pierre Jouhaud, De l'Institution comparée des postes, en France et à l'étranger, et des innovations soumises par l'administration à une commission, Paris : Mme Goulet, 1838, iv + 94 p.

Cajetan Ritter von Manner, Handbuch für k.k. österr. Staatsbeamte und Postbedienstete, Vienna, 1838.
  • Noted, Zeitschrift für österreichische Rechtsgelehrsamkeit und politische Gesetzkunde, Dec. 1839, p. 548 (link).
previous, 1830; next
Jan.
The Tenth Report of the Commissioners appointed to inquire into the Management of the Post-Office Department, Registration of Letters, Jan. 1838, 38 p.
See also, http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/r/C11756

House of Commons, Session 1837-38, paper no. 112, 38 p.  
Parliamentary Papers 1837-38 (112) vol. XXXV, p. 185.
PDF [ProQuest]
Feb. 11
Postage, The Examiner, Feb. 11, 1838, pp. 81-82.
Mar. 14.
The Post Circular, Mar 14, 1838, first issue.
  • See the discussion by Henry Cole, its instigator, in his memoirs (ref).
  • Issue no. 1, Mar. 14, 1838
    • Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1072, realized £207 (link)
  • Issue no. 2, Mar. 21, 1838
    • Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1073, realized £126 (link)
    • Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1074, realized £126 (link)
  • Issue no. 3, Mar. 28, 1838
    • Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1075, realized £126 (link)
    • Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1076, realized £69 (link)
  • Issue no. 4, Apr. 5, 1838
    • Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1077, realized £368 (link).  "SECOND EDITION", contents cover James Chalmers's suggestions on the possible use of "slips" or "postage stamps" along with an illustration of his proposed 1d. and 2d. designs, Newspaper Tax stamp on back page; light folds.
    • Grosvenor Philatelic Auctions, May 15, 2003, Sale 15, lot 1520, realized £1500.  Postal Reform: 'The Post Circular, OR AN ADVOCATE FOR A CHEAP, SWIFT, AND SURE POSTAGE', edition number 4, dated Thursday April 5th 1839, a fascinating four page document including letters from Rowland Hill discussing the proposed reduction in postal rates, James Chalmers with illustrations of ''General Postage'' 1d. and 2d. essays and in which he discusses the importance of cancelling the stamps 'Again to prevent the possibility of these being used a second time, it should be made imperative on postmasters to put the Post-office town stamp across the slip or postage stamp', etc., with ''POST/CIRCULAR/ONE/PENNY/NEWSPAPER'' stamp in red on reverse, very fine.  Photo [no. 4, second ed.].
  • Issue no. 5, Apr. 24, 1838
    • Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1078, realized £138 (link)
    • Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1079, realized £86 (link)
  • Issue no. 6, May 4, 1838
    • Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1080, realized £138 (link)
    • Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1081, realized £80 (link)
  • Issue no. 7, May 11, 1838
    • Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1082, realized £126 (link)
  • Issue no. 8, May 25, 1838
    • Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1083, realized £138 (link)
    • Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1084, realized £80 (link)
  • Issue no. 9, July 5, 1838
    • Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1085, realized £126 (link)
  • Issue no. 10, Mar. 28, 1839
    • Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1086, realized £518 (link)
  • Issue no. 11, Apr. 17, 1839
    • Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1087, realized £138 (link)
    • Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1088, realized £40 (link)
  • Issue no. 12, Apr. 30, 1839
    • Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1089, realized £805 (link)
    • Grosvenor Philatelic Auctions, May 15, 2003, Sale 15, lot 1521, unsold.  Postal Reform: 'The Post Circular, OR AN ADVOCATE FOR A CHEAP, SWIFT, AND SURE POSTAGE', edition number 12, dated Tuesday April 30th 1839, a further fascinating four page document with the ''Report of the London Mercantile Committee for the Reduction of Postage' including the paragraph 'Your Sub-Committee are of opinion, and this opinion they express with much confidence, THAT THE SAFE PLAN FOR THE REVENUE, IS TO REDUCE POSTAGE AT ONCE AND UNIVERSALLY TO ONE PENNY; AND THAT ANY OTHER RATE CAN HARDLY BE VIEWED AS A FAIR TRIAL OF MR ROWLAND HILL'S PLAN', on the second page is the cartoon of the Edinburgh mail of 2nd March 1838 showing the vagaries of the system at that time, on the third page are examples of the ''POST OFFICE PERMIT'' essay in blue and the ''ONE POUND'' banknote printed by the Congreve process in black and pink, ''POST/CIRCULAR/ONE/PENNY/NEWSPAPER'' stamp in red on front, at some time the document has been damaged at the edges and expertly restored, the contents being unaffected, very fresh and rare.
    • Grosvenor Philatelic Auctions, May 26, 2005, Sale 22, lot 232, unsold.
    • Grosvenor Philatelic Auctions, Nov. 18, 2014, Sale 91, lot 102, realized £1850.  Postal Reform: 'The Post Circular, OR AN ADVOCATE FOR A CHEAP, SWIFT, AND SURE POSTAGE', edition number 12, dated Tuesday April 30th 1839, fascinating four page document with the ''Report of the London Mercantile Committee for the Reduction of Postage'' including the paragraph ''Your Sub-Committee are of opinion, and this opinion they express with much confidence, THAT THE SAFE PLAN FOR THE REVENUE, IS TO REDUCE POSTAGE AT ONCE AND UNIVERSALLY TO ONE PENNY; AND THAT ANY OTHER RATE CAN HARDLY BE VIEWED AS A FAIR TRIAL OF MR ROWLAND HILL'S PLAN'', on the second page is the cartoon of the Edinburgh mail of 2nd March 1838 showing the vagaries of the system at that time, on the third page are examples of the ''POST OFFICE PERMIT'' essay in blue and the ''ONE POUND'' banknote printed by the Congreve process in black and pink, ''POST/CIRCULAR/ONE/PENNY/NEWSPAPER'' stamp in red on front, vertical and horizontal folds with minor central fault and edge imperfections, a rare and important item.
  • Issue no. 13,
  • Issue no. 14, June 28, 1839
    • Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1090, realized £184 (link)
  • -- Crawford Catalogue, col. 727; British Library shelfmarks Crawford 2351, Crawford 1192(5-17).
  • Some of the members of the Mercantile Committee on Postage were George Moffatt, John Dillon, John Travers, W.H. Ashurst, Joshua Bates, Henry Cole.
Apr.
Launcelot Lamprey, Mems in the Mediterranean, The Metropolitan Magazine, April 1838, vol. 21, p. 376 (link) [image].
Apr.
M.C. [Henry Cole], Uniform Penny Postage, The London and Westminster Review, Apr. 1838, vol. 7/29/31, no. 1, p. 225-264 (link).
  • Review of, First Report from the Select Committee on Postage, and Post Office Reform, 3rd ed., by Rowland Hill.
  • PDF [ProQuest]
  • American Edition, April 1838, vol. 31, p. 118-139 (link).
  • Reprinted in The Post Circular, July 5, 1838, no. 9; also as a separate pamphlet.
  • John Stuart Mill was owner of the London and Westminster Review from Oct. 1836 to March 1840.  He wrote to Cole, probably in March 1838 (ref),
    Dear Cole
    I am obliged to send this article back to you; I never had so unmanageable a one in my life.  Not only is it often quite impossible for me to make out what you mean, but there is not one sentence in the whole article in its proper place.  I wish you would rewrite it or rearrange it, on the principle of proving only one thing at a time & not jumping from one point to another & back again several times in a page.  The article is utterly unmanageable by me—it can only be disentangled by the hand that entangled it—but the material is all excellent.
    Ever yours
    J.S. Mill
    [PS] You must lose no time if it is to be in this number.

The first article of the next issue, Modern Wood Engraving, Aug. 1838, vol. 7/29/31, no. 2, p. 265-280 (link), is also Cole's work (ref).

Apr.
Dr. Lichfield, The Postman, Bentley's Miscellany, April 1838, vol. 3, p. 504-505 (link).
Apr. 4
First Report from the Select Committee on Postage; together with the minutes of evidence, and appendix.

House of Commons, Session 1837-38, paper no. 278, 516 p.
Parliamentary Papers 1837-38 (278) vol. XX Part I, p. 1.
PDF [ProQuest]
  • Minutes of Feb. 7 - Apr. 4, 1838, chaired by Robert Wallace, M.P.  The committee was appointed Nov. 27, 1837, in response to Rowland Hill's pamphlet.
Apr. 21
Minutes of Evidence taken before the Select Committee on Postage, The Athenæum, Apr. 21, 1838, p. 281-284 (link).
Apr. 28
Minutes of Evidence taken before the Select Committee on Postage, The Athenæum, Apr. 28, 1838, p. 297-298 (link).
  • This issue was printed on paper from Dickinson, with silk threads, as recommended for the post office covers.
Jun.
[J.J. Darling], Post-Office Reform, Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, Jun. 1838, vol. 5 n.s., p. 391-395 (link).
July
Post Office Reform, The Eclectic Review, July 1838, vol. 4, p. 107-120 (link).
Jul.
Moral Effect of High Postage on the Poor, The British Magazine, July 1838, p. 43-44.
Aug. 1
Second Report from the Select Committee on Postage; together with the minutes of evidence, appendix and index.

House of Commons, Session 1837-38, paper no. 658, 879 p.
Parliamentary Papers 1837-38 (658) vol. XX Part II, p. 1.
PDF [ProQuest]
Aug. 13
Third Report from the Select Committee on Postage; together with an abstract of the evidence, directed by the committee to be appended to the report.

House of Commons, Session 1837-38, paper no. 708, 200 p.
Parliamentary Papers 1837-38 (708) vol. XX Part I, p. 517.
PDF [ProQuest]
Aug.
[Henry Cole], Report of the Select Committee on Postage, Fraser's Magazine for Town and Country, London, Aug. 1838, vol. 18, pp. 250-252 (link).
Aug. 19
Moral Advantages of Low Postage, The Examiner, Aug. 19, 1838, p. 523.
Nov. 14
New South Wales Government Gazette, Nov. 14, 1838, no. 370, p. 969-1004.
  • Conveyance of Mails, p. 972 (link, link).  Notice dated 12 Nov. 1838.  [image]
  • Returned Letters, p. 973 (link, link).  Notice dated 13 Nov. 1838.  [image]
  • [Stamped Envelopes], p. 994 (link, link).  Notice dated 1 Nov. 1838.  [image]
    • This is the first instance of a prepaid government-stamped postal item, for local use in Sydney.
Dec. 3
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Dec. 3, 1838.
  • 25th Congress, 2nd Session.
  • [Senate] US Serial Set, 338 S.doc.1/12, p. 664-669 (link).
  • [House] US Serial Set, 344 H.doc.2/12, p. 614-619 (link).
  • Transcribed, see 1823.
(previous, next)
Dec. 8
The Public and the Post Office, The Spectator, Dec. 8, 1838, pp. 1161-1162 (link).

A Money-Order Office was established as part of the British Post Office.

First steamship mail from Britain to America.






1839   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight & Co., vol. 12, 1839, 96 p.
  • General Post-Office, London, pp. 74-82 (link).
  • Stamps [revenue], Assessed Taxes, pp. 92-94 (link).
(previous, next)

The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight & Co., 1839, 252 p.
  • The Uniform Penny Postage, pp. 107-112 (link).
  • Postage - Packet Boats, Mails - Railways, p. 162-163 (link).  Acts of Aug. 14, 1838.
  • Abstract of the Net Produce of the Revenue of Great Britain, Gross Income of the General Post-Office, p. 175 (link).
  • An Account of the Gross and Net Produce of the Post Office Revenue of Great Britain and Ireland, p. 179-180 (link).
  • An Account of the Amount of Postage collected at the undermentioned Cities and Towns of the United Kingdom, p. 196 (link).
(previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1839.   (previous, next)

[US Post Office Laws], 1839.
  • USPBC, no title page or other identification, 48 p.; the last-dated law is Mar. 3, 1839.

David H. Burr, The American Atlas, Exhibiting the Post Offices, Post Roads, Rail Roads, Canals, and the Physical and Political Divisions of the United States of North America, 1839, 13 maps.

William Chapin, A Complete Reference Gazetteer of the United States of North America : Containing a General View of the United States, and of Each State and Territory, and a Notice of the Various Canals, Railroads and Internal Improvements ... Together with All the Post Offices in the United States, as published by the authority of the Post Office Department, ...

New York : W. Chapin and J.B. Taylor, 1839, 347 + [3] p.
New York : Phelps & Ensign, 1840, 347 p.
New York : Phelps & Ensign, 1841, 367 p.
New York : T. & E. H. Ensign, 1843, 371 p.
New York : T. & E. H. Ensign, 1844, 371 p.
New York : T. & E.H. Ensign, 1845, 371 p.

The Democratic Medley, or sayings and doings, with the history of one day, to which is added the Whig's light-house, and a trip through the custom-house & post office, Philadelphia, 1839, 34 p.

Texas [Republic], Post Office Department, Report of the post office master general of the condition of his department, Austin, Texas, Oct. 1839, 1 sheet.
  • (Shoemaker 1839 58844)
Jan.
Post Office Reform, Monthly Review, Jan. 1839, vol. 1 n.s., pp. 54-65 (link).
  • Review of Ashurst, 1838.
Jan.
Indelible Ink [Society of Arts], Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, Jan. 1839, p. 64.
Feb. 8
Document, On the subject of reducing and equalizing letter postage, Feb. 8, 1839.
  • Journal of the Senate of the United States of America, Washington, Feb. 28, 1839, p. 293 (link).
  • Public Documents Printed by Order of The Senate of the United States, Washington, 1839, vol. III, Document no. 194 (link).
  • The origin of the document is not described.
  • The document begins with the proposal "now under consideration in the British Parliament", and it refers to a pamphlet, which is not identified or reproduced.  From the page references to the pamphlet, it appears to be W.H. Ashurst, Facts and Reasons In Support of Mr. Rowland Hill's Plan for a Universal Penny Postage, London : Henry Hooper, 1838, 2nd ed.
Mar.
Samuel Lover, Handy Andy, Bentley's Miscellany, Mar. 1839, vol. 5, pp. 299-312 (link).
  • Mail is delivered to the Squire's household, p. 304 (link).
Mar. 9
Parliamentary Report on Postage, The Spectator, Mar. 9, 1839, vol. 12, pp. 226-227 (link, but without the supplement).
  • The supplement mentioned here was also noted on p. 224 (link).
  • Petition forms, to be directed to the Houses of Lords and Commons, could be obtained from at least one printer (link).
Mar. 10
Report for the Committee on Postage, The Examiner, Aug. 19, 1839, p. 155.
Apr.
[Henry Cole], The Justice and Profit of a Uniform Penny Postage, The British and Foreign Review, Apr. 1839, vol. 8, pp. 451-489 (link).
  • PDF [ProQuest]
Apr. 1
Penny Postage, Figaro in London, Apr. 1, 1839, p. 97.
Apr. 18
Three page printed report of the Public Meeting on Postage held at Manchester on 18 April 1839, concerning the effect of the current postal tariffs on business and the public in the Manchester area.
  • Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1068, realized £161 (link)
Apr. 20
Ministerial Neglect of the Post-Office Question, The Spectator, Apr. 20, 1839, vol. 12, p. 370 (link).
Apr. 21
The Penny Postage, The Examiner, Apr. 21, 1839, p. 243.
Apr. 27
[about Mr. London's letter to the Morning Chronicle], The Spectator, April 27, 1839, vol. 12, p. 387 (link).
Apr. 27
Mr. Hill's Plan for Securing the Delivery of Paid Letters, The Spectator, Apr. 27, 1839, vol. 12, p. 393 (link).
Apr. 27
Proposed New Plan of Postage, Chambers's Edinburgh Journal, Apr. 27, 1839, pp. 108-109.
Apr.
Mercantile Committee on Postage, To the Mercantile Committee : report of the Sub- Committee, [London : W. Lake, printer], [1839], 3 p., with a printed covering letter, dated April, 1839, signed in ms. by W.H. Ashurst.
  • -- GK entry number 31011, Reel 2855.
May
[J.J. Darling], A Uniform Penny Postage, Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, May 1839, vol. 6, pp. 284-286 (link).
May
Samuel Lover, Handy Andy, Bentley's Miscellany, May 1839, vol. 5, pp. 479-489 (link).
  • The Squire offers to frank a letter, p. 486 (link).
May 2
The Political Economy Club met in London, May 2, 1839, and discussed the question, led by J.R. McCulloch, "Are there any good grounds for thinking that the proposed plan of conveying Letters by Post under stamped envelopes could be advantageously carried into effect?" (link).  Rowland Hill and Henry Cole, though not members, attended the meeting (link).
June 1
News of the Week, The Spectator, June 1, 1839, p. 501 (link).
June 13
Rowland Hill, On the Collection of Postage by Means of Stamps, June 13, 1839.
Issued by the Mercantile Committee on Postage, No. 65.
  • See also, The London and Westminster Review, Mar. 1840 (below).
  • See also, Notes on the Envelopes of Great Britain, SCM, Nov. 1, 1870, p. 165-167 (link).
  • Reprinted with notes by Pearson Hill, London, Feb. 18, 1888.
    • British Library shelfmark General Reference Collection Crawford 1116 (14)
  • Reproduced in The Penny Postage Jubilee and Philatelic History, by Phil [A.D. Blackburn], London : Sampson Low, 1891, p. 94-101 (link). 
June 10
Penny Postage, Figaro in London, June 10, 1839, p. 173.
June 29
Cheap Postage, at Home and Abroad, The Spectator, June 29, 1839, vol. 12, pp. 607-608 (link).
  • Mostly a review of Piron's pamphlet of 1838.
July 1
Rowland Hill, Facts and Estimates as to the Increase of Letters.
  • Issued by the Mercantile Committee on Postage, sent to every member of Parliament.
  • Reproduced in The Life of Sir Rowland Hill, Appendix H, vol. 1, pp. 534-538 (link).
July 6
Motion in Parliament by Thomas Spring Rice, to reduce postage to one penny, uniform; to abolish Parliamentary franking; etc.  The Penny Postage Bill passed Commons July 29, and Lords Aug. 17.
July
Samuel Taylor, The Penny Postage Question Examined, The British Farmer's Magazine, Jul. 1839, vol. 3, pp. 146-166 (link).

Samuel Taylor, The Penny Postage Question Examined, London : J. Ridgway & Sons, 1839, 23 p., preface date May 27, 1839.
Aug. 17
The Penny Postage Act received Royal Assent.  The act was passed Aug. 17, 1839; it extended to Oct. 5, 1840.

Penny Postage Act, Rowland HillThe New Act (2 & 3 Victoria, Cap. 52), for Reducing the Postage on all Letters to a Uniform Rate of One Penny, With a Few Remarks on the Disadvantages Attendant on Mr. Hill's Proposal to use Stamped Envelopes, London : J.W. Southgate, [1839], 8 p.

Berger's edition of the Penny Postage act : the new act (2 & 3 Victoria, cap. 52) for establishing a uniform penny postage, passed 17th August, 1839 : with notes, London : G. Berger, [1839], 8 p.

  • -- GK entry number 31106, Reel: 2865.
Aug.
Penny Postage Act, The Inventors' Advocate, Aug. 24, 1839, pp. 22-23.
Aug.
Post Office Reform in England, The United States Magazine and Democratic Review, Aug, 1839, vol. 6, pp. 81-96 (link).
Sep. 6 Announcement of the Treasury Competition for designs of postage stamps and postal stationery, The Times, London, Sep. 6, 1839.
Sep. 16
Rowland Hill was given a two-year appointment (later extended to three years) at the Treasury to assist in implementing the Penny Postage Act.  He had no actual authority, could only interact with the Post Office though the Treasury, and was dismissed on a change of government in 1842.
Oct.
[John Wilson Croker], Post-Office Reform, The Quarterly Review, Oct. 1839, vol. 64, no. 128, pp. 513-574 (link).
Post-Office Reform, The London Quarterly Review, American Edition, Oct. 1839, vol. 64, pp. 282-304 (link).
  • For Rowland Hill's later comments (probably in the 1870's, published 1880), see here.
Oct. 19
British and French Encouragement of Invention, The Mechanics' Magazine, London, Oct. 19, 1839, vol. 32, p. 44-45 (link).
  • About the Treasury Competition for design of a postage stamp, deriding the small reward.  See also, p. 176, 178, 208.
Oct. 22 Rowland Hill, A Report on the French Post-Office, in a letter addressed to the Rt. Hon. the Chancellor of the Exchequer, [1839], 14 p.; dated at head of text, October 22nd, 1839.
  • -- GK entry number 31117, Reel 2866.
  • See also, The Times, London, Nov. 12, 1839.
  • Hill became acquainted with M. Piron of the French Post Office on his visit to Paris; Piron later sent Hill a full sheet of the newly-issued French stamps.  On this visit or a later one, Hill also met Horace Say; would he have met Natalis Rondot in later years?  (Smyth, pp. 157-158, http://books.google.com/books?id=OgdDAAAAIAAJ)
"It's a small world" -- Rowland Hill, as well as his father and brothers, was corresponding with Jeremy Bentham in the 1820's (ref); Bentham was also corresponding with Jean-Baptiste Say.  The Say and Rondot families were well-acquainted (ref).
Nov.
A "Sly Drive" from the Post-Office to Parliament Street: Penny Plans and Puzzling Prognostics, Fraser's Magazine for Town and Country, London, Nov. 1839, vol. 20, pp. 630-634 (link).
  • Satirical nonsense.
Nov.
The New Post Office Regulations, The Inventors' Advocate, Nov. 30, 1839, p. 251 (link).
Nov. 2
Rowland Hill's famous letter to the Chancellor of the Exchequer 2 Nov. 1839 outlining his plan for the gradual implementation of Postal Reform.
Nov.
William Cooper, A Letter to the Right Honorable The Postmaster General, London, Oct. 1839.
Second ed., The Penny Postage -- A Letter to the Right Honorable The Postmaster-General showing the practicality of the Penny Postage plan, Nov. 1839, London : Fisher & Co., 12 p.
  • Cooper was Chief Clerk in the Southampton Post Office; see also, Cooper's Southampton directory, 1843.
  • Extract, in The Inventor's Advocate, Dec. 7, 1839, p. 268 (link).
  • See also, The London and Westminster Review, Mar. 1840 (below).
Nov. 30
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Nov. 30, 1839.
  • 25th Congress, 2nd Session.
  • [Senate] US Serial Set, 354 S.doc.1/9.
  • [House] US Serial Set, 363 H.doc.2/9.
  • Transcribed, see 1823.
(previous, next)
Dec. 5
Uniform 4d rate introduced in Britain, with 1d in London.  Letters charged by weight, not by distance or sheets of paper.  Letter rate, 4d for the first 1/2 ounce, otherwise 8d per ounce.
Dec. 14
Samuel Forrester, Plan for the operation of Uniform Penny Postage.
Dec. 20
The New-York Penny Post Association announced their service, to distribute letters and small packages, in the New York Journal of Commerce, Dec. 20, 1839 (link).  They applied to the New York Board of Assistant Aldermen, Feb. 3, 1840, for permission to place boxes at City Hall, etc., to receive mail (link); the managers were then stated to be Messrs. Stirling and Kennedy.
  • Hunt's Merchants' Magazine, May 1841, noted "We are gratified to learn that Mr. Tremayn, manager of the New York Penny Post, is preparing for the press a city directory, to be called the “New York Penny Post Directory, for 1841-42." (link).  Longworth's American Almanac, New York Register, and City Directory, 1841, lists "Tremayne, Edward, penny post, 2 Exch. h[ome] Clarendon" (link). 
Dec. 28
Treasury Warrant, Supplement to the London Gazette, Dec. 28. 1839, p. 2717-2720 (link, pdf).
  • British postage rates, effective 10 Jan. 1840.
?
Queen Victoria and the uniform penny postage : a scene at Windsor Castle. [London : Printed by C. Reynell]. [1838?], [2] p.
  • -- GK entry number 30662, Reel 2815.
A Report of a Scene at Windsor Castle Respecting the Uniform Penny Postage, London : Henry Hooper, 1839, 8 p.
  • -- GK entry number 31149, Reel 2867.
  • Reprinted in St. Martin's-le-Grand, Oct. 1894, vol. 4, p. 382-387 (link).
  • Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1071, realized £58 (link).
-- in a monthly issue of Charles Dickens's Nicholas Nickleby, during summer 1839?

In Henry Cole's memoir, Fifty Years of Public Work, 1884, this appears as A Report of an Imaginary Scene at Windsor Castle Respecting the Uniform Penny Postage (link).

Invention of electrotyping (relief printing) by Moritz Jacobi.






1840   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight & Co., vol. 13, 1840, 96 p.
  • General Post Office, London, pp. 77-83 (link).
  • Stamps [revenue], Assessed Taxes, pp. 92-94 (link).
(previous, next)

The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight & Co., 1840, 263 p.
  • The History of the Post-Office, pp. 62-76 (link).
    • See also, the critical review in Fraser's Magazine, Jan. 1841, vol. 23, p. 104-105 (link).
  • Penny Postage, pp. 155-156 (link).  Act of Aug. 17, 1839.
  • Abstract of the Net Produce of the Revenue of Great Britain, Gross Income of the General Post-Office, p. 170-171 (link).
  • An Account of the Gross Receipt of the Post Office Revenue of Great Britain, p. 174 (link); Statistics of British Postage, p. 190-192 (link).
  • Chronicle of the Session of Parliament, 1839, p. 206-207 (link).  Introduction of the Postage Bill.
  • Minute of the Treasury for the Regulation of the Postage, 12 Nov. 1839, p. 261-263 (link).
(previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1840.   (previous, next)

Indexes to Parliamentary Reports and Papers relating to the Post Office and Postage, 1735-1839, London : House of Commons, 1840, Session 1840, vol. XLII, 479 p.

The Post-Office London Directory for 1840, London : W. Kelly & Co.
See p. 631 for details of the new Penny Postage.
  • -- Crawford Catalogue, col. 159; British Library shelfmark Crawford 898 (4). 
  • Supplement, [2] + 95 + [3] p.; Post Office Regulations (p. 1-32), Parliamentary Directory (p. 33-68), Supplement (p. 69-79), advertising (p. 80-90), directory advertising (p. 91-95 + [3]).

James Orange, The Nottingham Annual Register, containing an Almanack, etc., London, 1840, 152 p. + advertising.

[Henry Cole], "Post Office", The Penny Cyclopædia, London : Charles Knight, 1840, vol. 18, p. 453-459 (link).  Written after August, 1840.
  • Cole describes the history of British posts, including rates, and then "Mr. Rowland Hill's plan of uniform postage.  This measure, which has placed the Post-office, at the time we are now writing, in a state of total transition, so that what is in practice to-day falls into disuse on the morrow, was carried into effect by an act passed in 1839 ...".
  • The lead sentence, "Correspondence is the offspring of advanced civilization.", passes without further comment.
Reprinted in,
  • Knight's Store of Knowledge for all Readers, London : Charles Knight, 1841, p. 113-128 (link).
  • Political Dictionary; Forming a Work of Universal Reference, Both Constitutional and Legal, London : Charles Knight & Co., 1846, vol. 2, p. 557-565 (link).
  • [abridged], The National Cyclopædia of Useful Knowledge, originally London, 1847-51, Boston : Little, Brown & Co., 1853, vol. 9, col. 782-785 (link).
    • Supplement, 1859, col. 802-805 (link).
  • The Standard Library Cyclopædia of Political, Constitutional, Statistical and Forensic Knowledge, London : Henry G. Bohn, 1860, vol. 4, p. 557-565 (link).
  • [with some revisions], The English Cyclopædia, Conducted by Charles Knight, London : Bradbury and Evans, Arts and Sciences vol. 6, 1861, col. 657-665 (link).
  • [with some revisions], The English Cyclopædia, Conducted by Charles Knight, London : Bradbury and Evans, Arts and Sciences vol. 6, 1867, col. 657-665 (link).
  • [with some revisions], The National Encyclopaedia, London : William Mackenzie, [1879], vol. 10, col. 438-448 (link).

Post-Handbuch für Berlin, Berlin : A.W. Hayn, 1840, xiv + 485 + [4] p.

previous, next


George Watterston, A Picture of Washington, Giving a Description of All the Public Buildings, Grounds, &c., Washington : William M. Morrison, 1840, 136 p.
  • http://books.google.com/books?id=VtfC1aNc2VIC  [Harvard] (gift of George Dexter, 1870)
  • Post Office Department, p. 38-39 (link), 100-104 (link).
  • George Watterston, 1783-1854, was Librarian of Congress from 1815 to 1829.  Afterward, he became editor of the National Journal.
Next edition, 1842, A New Guide to Washington.

Texas [Republic], An Act to amend and reduce into one of the several laws regulating the Post Office Department, to which is added instructions and forms for the guidance of Post-Masters, Austin, Texas : Gazette Office, 1840, 48 p.
  • (Shoemaker 40-6493)
Jan.
William Waverton, The People's Letter Bag and Penny Post Companion, London : Darton and Clark.
  • Samples of letters that might be copied for ordinary use.
  • First ed., Jan. 1840, 108 pp.; second ed., April 1840, 124 pp.; third ed., April 1843; fourth ed., 1852, 110 p.
  • -- British Library, General Reference Collection 10921.a.2. (second ed.)
Jan.
The Fourpenny Postage, Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, Jan. 1840, vol. 7, p. 66 (link).
Jan.
[Matthew Davenport Hill, Henry Cole], Post-Office Reform, The Edinburgh Review, Jan. 1840, vol. 70, no. 142, pp. 545-573 (link).
  • PDF [ProQuest].
  • American edition, New York, Jan. 1840, vol. 70, no. 142, p. 286-300 (link).
  • This was written in response to Croker's attacks in the Quarterly Review, Oct. 1839.
  • Rowland Hill's Post Office Journal, Jan. 10, 1840 [Fryer & Akerman, p. 83], "The Chancellor of the Exchequer much pleased with Matthew's admirable article on Postage in the Edinburgh Review published yesterday."
Jan. 10 Uniform Penny Postage was adopted in Britain on Jan. 10, 1840, with the end of free franking by Parliament and most government officials.  Letter rate, 1d for the first 1/2 ounce, otherwise 2d per ounce.
Jan. 11
The Penny Postage, The Mechanics' Magazine, London, Jan. 11, 1840, vol. 32, p. 254 (link). 
Jan. 16
When the British Parliament opened on Jan. 16, the Members could purchase preprinted envelopes ("letter covers"), valid for use only at the Houses of Parliament.  After the 1838 Sydney envelopes, these were the second items representing prepaid postage, though neither was intended for wide-spread general use.  The Parliamentary envelopes remained valid only until May 6, when they were replaced by the new generally-available postage stamps, envelopes and letter sheets, the Penny Black, Twopenny Blue, and Mulready's.

The Parliamentary envelopes were not reported in a philatelic publication until 1881, although they had been mentioned in the contemporary records of Parliamentary business.  For their history and a census of surviving examples, see Alan Huggins and Edward Klempka, Great Britain: The 1840 Prepaid Parliamentary Envelopes, London : The Royal Philatelic Society London, 2013.
  • Journals of the House of Commons
  • Journals of the House of Lords
  • Hansard's Parliamentary Debates, 1840, vol. 51, col. 227-229 (Jan. 18)
  • The Mirror of Parliament, 1840, vol. 1, p. 75-76 (Jan. 17), 140-142 (Jan. 18); vol. 2, p. 1322 (Feb. 27),
Jan. 31
King's Registered Commemorative Letter Balance, The Mechanics' Magazine, Jan. 31, 1840, vol. 32, p. 305-308 (link).
  • The base of the balance is inscribed "Rowland Hill, January 10, 1840".  [Were these actually produced?]
Jan. 31
Edwin Hill, brother of Rowland Hill, was appointed Inspector of Postage Stamps at the Board of Stamps and Taxes (renamed the Board of Inland Revenue in 1849).  This agency assumed responsibility for production and distribution of British postage stamps, as they were already doing so for duty stamps for tax collections.  Paper manufacture and stamp printing were contracted and operated under supervision of Board employees.

Ormond Hill, son of Edwin Hill, was appointed Assistant Superintendent of Postage Stamps, in May 1841.
Feb.
The Postage Stamps, The Art-Union, Feb. 1840, vol. 2, p. 25 [image].
Feb.
The Penny Postage, Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, Feb. 1840, vol. 7, p. 136 (link).
Feb. 1
Means of Personal and Epistolary Intercourse Seventy years Ago, The Penny Magazine, Feb. 1, 1840, vol. 9, p. 43-44 (link).
Mar.
X. [Henry Cole], [Review of] On the Collection of Postage by Means of Stamps, The London and Westminster Review, Mar. 1840, vol. 33, no. 65, p. 491-505, with 4 color plates, p. 506-515 (link).
  • similar, but with different images of the 4 plates.
  • article and 5 plates, grayscale scan, PDF [ProQuest].
  • American edition, p. 263-271 (link), omitting the plates.
  • -- Crawford Catalogue, col. 617; British Library shelfmark Crawford 1812; 4 plates.
  • By this time, the designers of the postage stamps, envelopes and letter sheets had all been selected, and work was progressing; the Mulready design was discussed in glowing detail at the end.  Since Henry Cole had a large role in the selection process, this review needs to be read carefully.
  • Excerpts appeared in The Literary World, Mar. 14, 1840, p. 382-383 (link); The Mechanics Magazine, Mar. 28, 1840, p. 479-480 (link); and perhaps elsewhere.
  • Henry Cole's memoir Fifty Years of Public Work contains an excerpt from p. 494-499, in vol. 1, p. 65-68 (link), but the text has been rearranged.
  • See also, Philbrick and Westoby, The Postage and Telegraph Stamps of Great Britain, 1881, p. 52, 162-3, 268, 275-6, 287 (link).
  • See also, E.B. Evans, Philatelic Notes and Queries, Gibbons Stamp Weekly, Nov. 28, 1908, vol. 8, p. 349 (link).  The item described there is the fifth plate.
    • Offered for sale (in Sep. 2016), as:  1839 1d Treasury competition essay by Robert Sievier.  Very fine full page example printed in pink and blue with white central embossed motif complete with his promotional narrative outlining his costs etc.  Originally distributed in stitched copies of the No. 65 "London and Westminster Review", and are now extremely scarce in this full page format.  Printed on soft off-white wove paper, light minor wrinkles as usually seen on these spectacular competition essays.  See [Stanley Gibbons] Specialised catalogue Vol.1 pg.6.
  • The plates are sometimes offered for sale as Treasury competition essays.  For example (in Sep. 2016), see here and here.  See also, the Stanley Gibbons Specialised catalogue, vol. 1.
  • John Stuart Mill owned The London and Westminster Review from Oct. 1836 to March 1840, then passed it to Henry Cole and William Edward Hickson.  Mill and Cole had been friends since 1828.  Hickson and Cole published the June 1840 issue under the previous title Westminster Review, and Cole withdrew soon afterward.
  • Mill evidently believed that the illustrations for this article would be a considerable expense, but he agreed to pay for it (letters of Feb. 6 and 8, 1840, to Henry Cole, ref, ref, ref).
  • Additional references: the Wellesley Index to Victorian Periodicals (vol. 3, pp. 528-706), Mill's Collected Works (ref), and Rosemary T. VanArsdel, “The Westminster Review: Change of Editorship, 1840,” Studies in Bibliography, XXV (1972), pp. 191-204 (link), esp. p. 197.
Mar.
Reduction of Postage, The Magazine of Natural History, London, Mar. 1840, vol. 4, p. 145 (link). 
  • Coincidentally, Mr. J.E. Gray figures in the following discussion on another topic.
Mar.
Barnabas Bates, Post-Office Reform - Cheap Postage, Hunt's Merchant's Magazine, New York, Mar. 1840, vol. 2, pp. 253 - 258 (link).
  • Later claimed by Bates to be the first US proposal for uniform lower postage rates for letters.  This ignores the petitions to Congress by Samuel Martin in 1828, 1830 and 1831, which were mostly concerned with newspaper postage rates.
  • Bates had been Assistant Postmaster of New York City.
Mar. 14
Perkin's and Co.'s Post-Office Stamps, The Mechanics' Magazine, Mar. 14, 1840, vol. 32, p. 438 (link).
Mar. 21
Report of the meeting of the Statistical Society, Mar. 16, 1840, The Athenæum, Mar. 21, 1840, p. 236 (link).
  • Rowland Hill's journal entry for Mar. 21, 1840 -- "My paper is in the Athenæum of today." 
Apr.
Rowland Hill, On the Effect of the New Postage Arrangements upon the Number of Letters, Journal of the Statistical Society of London, April 1840, vol. 3, pp. 102-105 (link, link).

The Monthly Chronicle of Events, Discoveries, Improvements and Opinions, Boston.
  • The [US] Post Office, April, 1840, vol. 1, p. 19-26 (link).
  • Chronology, Jan. 10, 1840, uniform penny postage in Britain, vol. 1, p. 52-56 (link).
  • The French and English Post Offices, May, 1840, vol. 1, p. 67-72 (link).
  • Chronology, July 23, 1840, British postage, vol. 1, p. 307-308 (link).
  • Chronology, July 24, 1840, West India Mails, vol. 1, p. 310-311 (link).
  • vol. 2, p. 57 (link)
  • vol. 2, p. 97 (link)
  • vol. 2, p. 307 (link)
  • vol. 2, p. 382 (link)
  • Chronology, Aug. 31, 1841, British and Foreign Postage, vol. 2, p. 468-469 (link).
  • Chronology, Feb. 17, 1842, British Post Office, vol. 3, p. 139 (link).
  • Chronology, July 1, 1842, [British] Newspaper Stamps and Advertisements, vol. 3, p. 374 (link).
  • The French Post-Office, Nov. 1842, vol. 3, p. 503-505 (link).
  • Chronology, Oct. 3, 1842, New Arrangements of the West India Mail, vol. 3, p. 518-519 (link)
Apr. 4
Our Weekly Gossip, The Athenæum, Apr. 4, 1840, p. 276.
Apr. 25
Treasury Warrant, Supplement to the London Gazette, April 25, 1840, p. 1073-1075 (link, pdf).
  • Full particulars of the Penny Black, Two Pence Blue and Mulready Covers, about to be introduced on May 6th 1840.
Apr. 25
The Times, London, Apr. 25, 1840.
Apr. 26
The Examiner, Apr. 26, 1840, p. 266.
May
The New Postage, The Gentleman's Magazine, May 1840, p. 532 [image].
May 1
Postage stamps [the Penny Black] and Mulready covers on sale in London.
  • In the vocabulary of the day, the adhesives are labels, the letter sheets are covers, the envelopes are envelopes, and they are all stamps.  The term stamps might also refer to revenue-related markings (as in stamp duty or stamped paper) or to postmarks.  Other terms in use included medallions and wafers.
The television series Victoria, broadcast in the US on PBS, in season 1 episode 4, The Clockwork Prince, has a scene in which Rowland Hill explains postage stamps to the Queen.
[Victoria examines a sheet of "penny black" postage stamps with her portrait on them]
Victoria:  But how will the little pictures stay affixed?
Rowland Hill:  The stamps, ma'am, have a layer of gum arabic on the back.
Victoria:  So everybody who wants to send a letter will have to lick my face?
Poetic license, we suspect.  For the complete conversation, see, Daisy Goodwin, Victoria: A Novel of a Young Queen, 2016, p. 336, http://books.google.com/books?id=vig4DQAAQBAJ.  Rowland Hill's Post Office Journal [Fryer & Akerman] does not indicate a meeting with the Queen about the postage stamps, although the Mulready design had been shown to her by Francis Baring, Chancellor of the Exchequer.  Moreover, the gum was most likely a chemical derived from potato starch (link), not the more expensive gum arabic.
May 2
The Times, London, May 2, 1840.
  • Rather negative references to the Mulready envelope, four days before it was valid for postage - 'Sir - is it possible that the enclosed is not a joke? ... nonsensical buffonery', the editor's response 'Our correspondent sent us one of Mr. Mulready's envelopes. We really can scarcely ''believe our eyes'' as we contemplate this monstrous specimen of art run mad'.
May 2
The Times, London, May 4, 1840. 
  • A humorous report on the Mulready envelope, and two letters on both the Mulready and 'the new postage stamps'.
May 6
The British Penny Black and Mulready covers are valid for postage; they went on sale May 1.
  • Grosvenor Philatelic Auctions, Sale 15, Lot 1529.  Mulready 1d. letter sheet A69, sent on May 6th 1840, the first official day of use, from London to Whitehaven with red Maltese Cross and clear Lombard Street ''LS/6 MY 6/1840'' datestamp on reverse, some cover imperfections. The inside of the cover is endorsed by the recipient 'This is the first ''Penny Postage'' envelope for letters that I received, being round one from my esteemed friend Thomas Blain. 5th Month 8th 1840' and signed 'John Tomlynson' a large margined 1d. black plate 1a BI with red Maltese Cross is appended alongside the signature - in 1978 Robson Lowe asked if Mr. Tomlynson was the first collector of adhesive stamps and first day covers! A further note (presumably from the sender, Thomas Blain) reads 'Lord Wm Russell, brother I believe to the late Duke of Bedford, was murdered last night at his house in Park St. Grosvenor Square but I have not learned any particulars' initialled 'TB'. A most interesting example of this popular first day cover. R.P.S. certificate (1990). Photo [not copied here]. Price Realised £2500
  • See also, for more quotes from correspondence in May 1840, Mike Jackson, May Dates, 1999, and http://www.mjpublications.com/
May 12
Rowland Hill made a note in his diary, "I fear we shall be obliged to substitute some other stamp for that designed by Mulready, which is abused and ridiculed on all sides."  The first of the Mulready caricatures appeared the next day, the surviving example being addressed to Mulready without pre-payment of postage.
  • Mike Jackson, May Dates, 1999, p. 179.
May 17
General Post Office, Notice to the Public, The Examiner, May 17, 1840, p. 320 [image].
  • Two notices, dated 28 April 1840 and 7 May 1840.
May 23
The Penny Postage, The Mechanics' Magazine, May 23, 1840, vol. 32, p. 738-740 (link). 
  • Careful and critical observations about the security features of the new stamps and covers.
May 28
Petition of Samuel Martin, Praying a reduction of the rates of letter postage, May 28, 1840.  Public Documents Printed by Order of The Senate of the United States, Washington, 1840, vol. VII, Document no. 502 (link). 
  • Martin refers to his petitions of 1831 and 1832; see also Daniel Webster's resolution, June 10, 1840.
  • Samuel Martin was postmaster at Campbell's Station, Tennessee.  In fact, he owned Campbell's Station (ref, ref).
  • See also, Richard John, Spreading the News, p. 156.
May 30
The Penny Postage, The Mechanics' Magazine, May 30, 1840, vol. 32, p. 760 (link). 
  • Advertising on "government stamp covers", sold at a discount, was already available on May 6.
Jun.
A Pictorial Rhapsody by Michael Angelo Titmarsh, with an Introductory Letter to Mr. Yorke, Fraser's Magazine for Town and Country, London, Jun. 1840, vol. 21, pp. 720-732 (link).
  • Pages 727-728 feature a defense of the Mulready covers, but most of this article is satirical.  "Michael Angelo Titmarsh" was a pseudonym for William Makepeace Thackeray, 1811-1863; "Oliver Yorke" was a pseudonym for the editor of Fraser's Magazine, William Maginn, 1794-1842.  "Titmarsh" had previously ridiculed Mulready in June 1838, also in Fraser's Magazine.
  • Anthony Trollope reports that, in 1848, Thackeray was proposed by the Postmaster General, a close friend, for the position of Assistant Secretary at the General Post Office (ref).  The position was not offered, and in Trollope's opinion it would have been disastrous for both Thackeray and the Post Office.
June 10
Journal of the [U.S.] Senate, June 10, 1840, p. 422 (link).
  • Mr. [Senator Daniel] Webster submitted the following resolutions for consideration:  Resolved, That the rates of postage charged on letters transmitted by the mails of the United States ought to be reduced.  Resolved, That it is expedient to inquire into the utility of so altering the present regulations of the Post Office Department, as to connect the use of stamps, or stamped covers with a large reduction of the rates of postage.  The Senate proceeded, by unanimous consent to consider the resolutions; and, On motion by Mr. Webster, Ordered, that they lie on the table, and be printed, with the accompanying papers.

Public Documents Printed by Order of The Senate of the United States, Washington, 1840, vol. VII, Document no. 547 (link), 2 p. plus 1 plate.

  • Webster's resolutions, with a British postal notice of April 28, 1840, and an illustration of the Mulready letter sheet and the Penny Black, made specially for the Senate Document.
  • In the Royal Philatelic Collection, http://postalmuseum.si.edu/queen's/reformgoesglobal.html
  • Siegel Auctions, Dec. 9-11, 2009, Sale 980, lot 2153, http://siegelauctions.com/
  • See also, Calvet M. Hahn, The Beginning of Adhesive Postage in the U.S., The Penny Post, Oct. 1995, vol. 5, no. 4, p. 6-27.
  • See also, Wayne Youngblood, Linn's Stamp News, Feb. 2017.
July 25
Post Magazine, London, first issue, July 25, 1840.
  • http://www.incisivemedia.com/our-news/post-magazine-celebrates-175th-anniversary/ makes the bold statement, "Post Magazine first appeared on Saturday 25 July 1840, just seven months after the introduction of the Penny Post and was the first publication anywhere in the world to be sent by post – hence its name.  It therefore ranks among one of the most significant commercial innovations of the nineteenth century."
  • Whatever the justification for the name, the contents are not it - Post Magazine is devoted to news and information of the insurance industry.  The form of the magazine at first was eight printed pages, folded, with a Penny Black stamp affixed.
  • Our Monthly Gossip, The Ceylon Magazine, Aug. 1841, vol. 1, p. 511-512 (link).
  • Phil Cheetham, "The Post Magazine Address Panel and Its Decorative Borders", philatelic exhibit (PDF).
  • Some examples at auction, Grosvenor, with an unused first issue (link).
The Post Magazine Almanack, the Insurance Directory, Reference and Yearbook, was published in 1840, and continued annually under various titles.
Aug.
The Exhibition of the Royal Academy of 1840, The Metropolitan Magazine, Aug. 1840, vol. 28, p. 116, excerpt (link) [image].
  • "We have looked carefully at Mulready's pictures this year, and the result of our observations is, that we can very readily conceive him to have been guilty of the atrocity of penny-postage notoriety."
Sep.
[Review of] The Seven Ages of Shakespeare, The Westminster Review, Sep. 1840, vol. 34, p. 505-506 (link).
  • Some kinder words about Mulready, suggested by another work of his, also engraved on wood by John Thompson, published earlier in 1840, but engraved in 1838 (link).  Mulready's painting of this scene, made later in 1838, is at the Victoria and Albert Museum (link).
Dec. 5
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Dec. 5, 1840.
(previous, next)
Dec. 15
Iowa [Territory] Legislative Assembly, House, H.R. File No. 81, Mr. Walworth, Dec. 15, 1840, Memorial to Congress, on the subject of Post Roads in the Territory of Iowa, [1840].
  • (Shoemaker 40-3471)
Dec. 26
Public Improvements, The Penny Magazine, Dec. 26, 1840, vol. 9, pp. 497-500 (link).







1841   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight & Co., vol. 14, 1841, 96 p.
  • General Post Office, London, pp. 80-87 (link).
  • Stamps [revenue], Assessed Taxes, pp. 92-95 (link).
(previous, next)

The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight & Co., 1841, 256 p.
  • Effect of the New Post Office Arrangements upon the Number of Letters, pp. 97-106 (link).
  • Postage Duties, p. 166 (link).  Act of 10 Aug. 1840.
(previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1841.   (previous, next)

The Post Office London Directory, 1841, comprising, Commercial Directory, Court Directory, Post Office Directory, Conveyance Directory, Banking Directory, &c. &c. &c., London : W. Kelly & Co., 1841.
At head of title: Under the immediate patronage of Her Majesty's Postmaster General.
  • -- GK entry number 31976, Reel 2936.  Incomplete, only p. i-x, 289-614, 929-998, 1204-1447.
  • part 1, Street, Commercial and Trades Directories.
  • part 2, Law, Court and Parliamentary Directories.
    • http://specialcollections.le.ac.uk/cdm/ref/collection/p16445coll4/id/8843  [Leicester]
    • Law directory, p. 863-928
    • Court directory, p. 929-997
    • Parliamentary directory, p. 998-1033
    • Government offices, ambassadors, consuls, p. 1034-1042
      • Post Office, p. 1035-1037
    • City directory, p. 1043-1060
    • Miscellaneous (adverts), p. 1061, 1214-1216
    • Periodicals and newspapers, p. 1217-1221
    • Post Office directory, p. 1222-1259
    • Conveyance directory, p. 1260-1354
    • Banking directory, p. 1355-1392
    • Assurance companies, missing; Dock companies, missing (p. 1393-1447)
A smaller edition "will be shortly published", according to the Preface, dated Dec. 30, 1840.  A supplement was to be published March 1, 1841. 

This is the first of the POLD series with a Street directory, though it had been a feature of other London directories for many years.

The Post-Office Annual Directory and Calendar for 1841-42, Edinburgh : Ballantyne and Hughes, 1841, xiv + 290 + cvi p.
At head of title: Under the patronage of Sir Edward S. Lees, Secretary to the General Post-Office for Scotland.
  • -- GK entry number 31975, Reel 2936.

[Sir] John Gladstone, Four letters addressed to the editor of the Morning Post on the objects of the ministerial budget, with additions, Edinburgh : William Blackwood, 1841, 35 p.
  • Letter V, The Plan for a Uniform Penny Postage Considered, letter dated Oct. 29, 1839, pp. 30-35.

A Descant on the Penny Postage, London : John Bohn, 1841, 1st ed., 38 p.; 2nd ed., 24 p.; Encore ed., with a few new cadences.
  • by X.A.P., pseudonym for John Peace, 1785-1861, Keeper of the City Library, Bristol.
  • -- GK entry number 32371, Reel 2960.
  • -- GK entry number 32372, Reel 2960.
  • See also, The Athenæum, Jun. 21, 1862, pp. 818-820 (link).  [excerpt, p. 819]
  • Reviewed, Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, Oct. 1841, vol. 8, p. 676 (link); "This is written by some blockhead of a Tory, who is indignant at the cheap postage, ...".

"The Post Office", London, Charles Knight, ed., London, 1841, vol. 6, p. 273-288, with 2 plates (link).

Blue Book, or, Register of Officers and Clerks in the Custom House & Post Office of the City of New York, with the annual compensation annexed to each, copied from the last report of the Secretary of the Treasury, New York, 1841, 12 p.
  • -- GK entry number 32006.35, Reel 2941.
  • (Shoemaker 41-712) gives the title as, Blue book; or register of all officers and clerks in the custom house and post office in New York City; with the annual compensation annexed to each, Copies from the last report of the secretary of the Treasury.

Manual of the Legislature of the State of Michigan, Detroit, 1841.  Table of the post-offices in the State of Michigan, p. 73-81.
Jan. 1
Louis Bronne, Belgium, Ministère des travaux publics, Administration des postes, Rapport sur le système de réforme introduit en Angleterre dans l'administration des postes aux lettres et de son application en Belgique, Brussels, 1841, 28 + [2] p.; dated Jan. 1, 1841.
Jan. 6
Post Office Report, United States Commercial & Statistical Register, Jan. 6, 1841, vol. 4, p. 1-4 (link).
  • An excerpt from the report by George Plitt, in the Postmaster General's annual report.
Jan. 9
Progress of Penny Postage, The Spectator, Jan. 9, 1841, p. 9 (link).
Jan. 9
Mail-Tenders, The Spectator, Jan. 9, 1841, p. 9 (link).
Jan. 12

New South Wales Government Gazette, Jan. 12, 1841, no. 3, p. 41-52.

  • Stamped Covers, p. 50 (link, link).  Notice dated 4 Jan. 1841; price reduction.  [image]
  • New Post Offices, p. 50 (link, link).  Notice dated 5 Jan. 1841.  [image]

Accounts and Papers of the House of Commons, Post Office and Postage, for the Session 26 Jan. 1841 to 22 June 1841.
Jul.
Rowland Hill, Results of the New Postage Arrangements, Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Jul. 1841, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 85-99 (link).
  • Read before the Statistical Society of London, May 17, 1841.
Also, as a separate offprint (London : H. Hooper, 1841, 16 p.), with a preface dated June 7, 1841, by W. H. Ashurst, who had arranged its publication.
  • -- GK entry number 32349, Reel 2960.
  • -- NPM, HE6935 .H647 1841

Remarks on a Paper by Rowland Hill on the Results of the New Postage Arrangements, by One who has examined the statistics, London : J. Ollivier (John Oliverier), 1841, 33 pp.
Jul.
The Dissolution of Parliament, The Westminster Review, July 1841, vol. 36, p. 167-188 (link). 
  • Remarks on postage reforms, p. 173-177.
Jul.
Plitt's Report on the Post Office, New York Review, July 1841, vol. 9, pp. 70-91 (link).
  • Report of George Plitt, Special Agent of the [US] Post Office Department, Feb. 3, 1841.
Jul. 31
Post Office Revenue, The Examiner, July 31, 1841, p. 490 (link).
Aug. 13
Postage Stamps, The Times, London, Aug. 13, 1841.
"A young lady ..."
Aug. 24
John Reynolds, Speech of Hon. John Reynolds, of Illinois, on the post office appropriation bill, in the House of Representatives, August 24, 1841, 4 p.
  • (Shoemaker 41-4454)
Aug. 25
Caleb Cushing, Speech of Mr. Cushing, of Massachusetts, on the post office bill, delivered in the House of Representatives, August 25, 1841, Washington, 1841, 10 p.
  • (Shoemaker 41-1410)
Aug. 25
Samuel Gordon, Speech of Hon. Samuel Gordon, of New York, on the bill making appropriation for the post office department, delivered in the House of Representatives, Wednesday, August 25, 1841, Washington, 1841, 8 p.
  • (Shoemaker 41-2207)
Oct.
[Review of] La Convention de Juillet 13 [1841], The Foreign Quarterly Review, Oct. 1841, vol. 28, p. 206-232 (link). 
  • Some remarks on the French and British postage rates, p. 229-232.
Oct.
Miscellaneous Literary Notices - Germany, The Foreign Quarterly Review, Oct. 1841, vol. 28, p. 262 (link).
  • "An imitation of the English penny-postage system has been in part introduced in Austria and Bohemia, but has proved any thing but beneficial.  ..."
Dec.
Pierre Jouhaud, Les chemins de fer et les postes, dans leurs rapports comparés de progrès et de conservation, en France et à l'Etranger, Paris : Charpentier, Dec. 1841, [2] + 82 p.
Dec. 2
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Dec. 2, 1841.
  • 27th Congress, 2nd Session.
  • [Senate] US Serial Set, 395 S.doc.1/8.
  • [House] US Serial Set, 401 H.doc.2/8.
  • http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hwcd6p  [Harvard]
  • in Hazard's United States Commercial and Statistical Register, Dec. 1841, vol. 5, p. 392-395 (link).
  • Reprinted with the reports of 1842-1846, Theron Wierenga, 1977.
  • -- APRL, GOV DOC P 1.1:841-46 1841-1846 (reprint)
(previous, next)
Dec. 25
Post Office, The Examiner, Dec. 25, 1841, p. 825 (link).






1842   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight & Co., vol. 15, 1842, 96 p.
  • General Post Office, London, pp. 80-86 (link).
  • Stamps [revenue], Assessed Taxes, pp. 92-95 (link).
(previous, next)

The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight & Co., 1842, 244 p.
  • Effect of the Penny Postage on the Number of Letters and on the Revenue of the Post Office, pp. 92-100 (link). 
(previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1842.   (previous, next)

Rowland Hill dismissed from his appointment at the Treasury.

The County and City of Cork Post Office General Directory, 1842-3, Cork : F. Jackson, 1842, xv + 164 p.

"Post-Office", The Encyclopædia Britannica, Edinburgh, 1842, 7th ed., vol. 18, pp. 486-498 (link).

The Post-Office, London : Charles Knight & Co., 1842, 66 p.
  • -- NPM, HE6935 .P678 1842 (Rare Books)

Wilhelm Görges, Deutscher Post-Almanach für das Jahr ..., Braunschweig : Friedrich Martin Meinecke, 1842-1853, 12 annual volumes.
  • vol. 1, 1842, viii + 280 p.
  • vol. 2, 1843, 176 + 112 p.
  • vol. 3, 1844, 160 + 128 p.
  • vol. 4, 1845, 208 + 96 p.
  • vol. 5, 1846, 208 + 112 p.
  • vol. 6, 1847, 192 + 112 p.
  • vol. 7, 1848, 152 + 136 p.
  • vol. 8, 1849, 144 + 160 p.
  • vol. 9, 1850, 160 + 128 p.
  • vol. 10, 1851, 128 + 160 p.
  • vol. 11, 1852, 128 + 160 p.
  • vol. 12, 1853, 176 p.
  • more details -- locations and contents
  • These volumes include some illustrations which are quite attractive.  For example, Königl. Hannover'scher Postillon, 1844; K.K. Oesterreich'sche Postillons, 1845; Königl. Sächs. Postillon, 1846.
  • For more historical details, see, Horst Besold, Herbert Leclerc, Wilhelm Görges – Postbeamter, Schriftsteller, Verleger, Archiv für deutsche Postgeschichte, 1982, no. 2, p. 47-64.
  • Selections have been reprinted in, Post aus der guten alten Zeit : eine Auswahl aus dem Deutschen Post-Almanach von Wilhelm Görges, Cremlingen : Elm Verlag, 1989, 174 p.

Messrs. Waghorn & Co.'s Overland Guide to India: By Four Routes to Egypt, London : J. Madden, 1842.
See also, http://www.collectorsclub.org/Library.shtml

George Watterston, A New Guide to Washington, Washington : Robert Farnham, 1842, 221 + [1] p.
First edition was 1840, A Picture of Washington.

George Bliss, Reply to a late letter of the post-master general and report of the first assistant post-master general, Springfield, Mass. : Wood & Rupp, 1842, 15 p.
Jan.
Table of the Post Offices in the United States, on the thirty-first of January, 1842, Washington : Gideon, 1842.
Mar.
Elisha Whittlesey, Post Office Facilities, The American Pioneer, Chillicothe (Ohio), later Cincinnati,
  • 1842, vol. 1, p. 106-112 (link), 189-193 (link), 362-368 (link), 415-421 (link).
  • 1843, vol. 2, p. 34-37 (link), 84-88 (link), 256-261 (link), 460-463 (link).
  • The author was, at the time, Auditor of the Treasury for the Post Office Department.  The series of articles is a detailed historical review of the Post Office, in the US and Britain.
Apr.
Political Retrospect, 1830 to 1841, The Westminster Review, Apr. 1842, vol. 37, p. 394-427 (link).
  • "Taxes on knowledge", penny postage and Rowland Hill, p. 411-414, 421-422.
June
Report from the Select Committee on Post Office Communication with Ireland.
July
The Post Office Directory, Reading : John Snare, 1842, 10 + v-xx + 21-143 + 4 + v-xii + 153-306 p.  (Norton 128).
  • "Revised through the Post Office by permission of the Postmaster."
  • Also referred to as Snare's Post Office Directory of Reading, 1842-43.
Oct.
Hamburg, The Westminster Review, Oct. 1842, vol. 38, p. 441-442 (link). 
  • Some notes on the Hamburg post office and Rowland Hill.
Nov.
The French Post Office, The Monthly Chronicle, Boston, Nov. 1842, vol. 3, pp. 503-505 (link).
Dec.
My Life and Times, "Nimrod", Fraser's Magazine for Town and Country, London, Dec. 1842, vol. 26, pp. 668-677 (link).
  • An early reference to the utility of dated postmarks, p. 670 [image].
Dec. 3
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Dec. 3, 1842.
  • Reprinted with the reports of 1841-1846, Theron Wierenga, 1977.
  • -- APRL, GOV DOC P 1.1:841-46 1841-1846 (reprint)
(previous, next)






1843   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight & Co., vol. 16, 1843, 96 p.
  • General Post Office, London, pp. 80-86 (link).
  • Property and Income Tax, Stamps [revenue], Assessed Taxes, pp. 91-95 (link).
(previous, next)

The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight & Co., 1843, 260 p.
  • Stamp Duties, p. 157 (link).
  • Number of letters delivered, 1839-1842, p. 200 (link)
(previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1843.   (previous, next)

The Small Edition of the Post Office London Directory, 1843, London : W. Kelly & Co., 1843, 44th ed.
  • title, preface, almanac, index and addenda, pp. 1-17.
    • At head of title: Under the immediate patronage of Her Majesty's Postmaster-General.
  • Official directory, pp. 18-62.
    • Post Office (General), pp. 51-53 (link).
  • Commercial and Professional directory, pp. 63-444.
  • Law and Other Public Offices, pp. 445-456.
  • Court directory, pp. 849-947.
  • Parliamentary directory, pp. 948-983.
  • Postage directory, pp. 984-1048 (link).
  • Periodicals, newspapers, churches, chapels, schools, pp. 1049-1059, 1528-1530.
    • The gap in pagination is intentional; nothing is missing.
  • Banking directory, pp. 1531-1566.
  • Assurance directory, pp. 1567-1608.
  • Public companies, pp. 1609-1612.
  • Miscellaneous [adverts], p. 1613-1636.

A Gazetteer: Containing a General View of the United States, And the Several States and Territories; with an Accurate Account of the Internal Improvements Throughout the Union: Also, a Table of the Counties, Cities, Towns, Villages, &c. in the Same; Together with a Table of the Rivers, Exhibiting Their Length and Termination; to which is Added a Table of All the Post Offices in the United States, and Their Nett Proceeds in 1841; the whole compiled from public documents and other popular works, Akron, Ohio : Manning & Darby, 1843, 409 p.

The New York State Guide, containing an alphabetical list of counties, towns, cities, villages, post offices, &c., ..., compiled from authentic sources, Albany : J. Disturnell, 1843, 96 p.
Jan. 1
John T. Blain, A Table of Post-Offices in Ohio, Columbus : Wright & Legg, 1843, 72 p.  Dated Jan. 1, 1843.
Jan.
William Cooper (Chief Clerk in the Southampton Post-Office), Post Office Directory of the Borough of Southampton, and the Neighborhood Comprised in the Postmaster's Official District, Southampton : Fletcher, Forbes, and Fletcher, 1843, viii + 194 p. + extensive advertisements; preface date Jan. 1843.  (Norton 361)
Later editions,
  • 1845.  (Norton 362).
  • 1847.  (Norton 363).
  • 1849.  (Norton 364).
  • Southampton : Forbes & Knibb, 1851.  (Norton 365; Shaw & Tipper 516). 
  • Southampton : Forbes & Marshall, 1853, viii + 180 + 104 + 162 (adverts) p., preface date Dec. 1852.  (Norton 366; Shaw & Tipper 516).
  • Southampton : Forbes & Marshall, 1855.  (Norton 367; Shaw & Tipper 516).
  • Southampton : A. Forbes, 1857.  (Shaw & Tipper 516).
  • Southampton : Forbes & Bennett, 1859.  (Shaw & Tipper 516).
  • Southampton : Forbes & Bennett, 1861.  (Shaw & Tipper 516).
  • 1863.  (Shaw & Tipper 516).
  • Southampton : J.J. Bennett, 1865.  (Shaw & Tipper 516).
  • The Southampton Directory, Southampton : T.G. Gutch & Co., 1867.  (Shaw & Tipper 519).
Jan.
[Leonard Bacon], The Post-Office System, as an Element of Modern Civilization, The New Englander, New Haven, Jan. 1843, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 9-27 (link).
Feb. 24
Post office department contracts, &c.; Letter from the postmaster general transmitting an abstract of the offers for carrying the mails, made within the year preceding the 1st of July, 1842, Washington, Feb. 24, 1843, 854 p.
March
Mr. Rowland Hill's Correspondence with the Treasury [1839-42], with reference to his appointment and removal, and to the introduction of the remaining parts of his plan of post-office improvement, including those letters which have been withheld as well as those which are given in the official copy, London : W. Clowes, 1843, 32 p.; preface date March 1843.
  • See also, The Westminster Review, May 1843, vol. 39, p. 609-612 (link).
Apr. 24
Rowland Hill, Requisites to the Completion of Mr. Rowland Hill's Plan of Post-Office Improvement, London : C. Knight, 1843, 16 p.  Being his letter of 24 April 1843 to the London Mercantile Committee on Postage, with his petition for inquiring into the state of the Post-Office, and the Committee's petition that his reforms be completed.
May 6
Post-Office Management of Post-Office Reform, The Spectator, May 6, 1843, vol. 16, pp. 421-422 (link).
June 13
Postage, Kendall's Expositor, Washington, June 13, 1843, vol. 3, p. 193-195 (link).
  • Published by Amos Kendall, former US Postmaster General (1835-1840).
Aug. 14
Gt. Britain, House of Commons, Report from the Select Committee on Postage; together with the minutes of evidence, appendix and index, Aug. 14, 1843, 6 + 366 + 316 pp.
House of Commons, Session 1843, paper no. 564, 692 p.
Parliamentary Papers 1843 (564) vol. VIII.1
PDF [ProQuest]
Aug. 9
Post-Office Belfast Annual Directory for 1843-44, Belfast : Printed by James Wilson for the Letter Carriers, 1843, 1st ed., 200 + 16 + [1] p.; preface date Aug. 9, 1843.
Aug. 24
Laws and Regulations for the Government of the Post Office Department, Washington, 1843, [4] + 61 + [3] + 59 + [5] + 30 + [1] p.

Postal Laws and Regulations of the United States of America, 1832 and 1843, reprint by Theron Wierenga, 1980.

Oct. 17
Post Office Circular, Kendall's Expositor, Washington, Oct. 17, 1843, vol. 3, p. 342-344 (link).
Nov.
Railway Reform, Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, Nov. 1843, vol. 10, pp. 733-738 (link).
  • Related to Post Office Reform, p. 737.
Nov. 1
Lt. Waghorn, The Acceleration of Mails (once a fortnight) between England and the East Indies, London : Smith, Elder and Co., 1843, 27 p.
Dec. 2
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Dec. 2, 1843.
  • Reprinted with the reports of 1841-1846, Theron Wierenga, 1977.
  • -- APRL, GOV DOC P 1.1:841-46 1841-1846 (reprint)
(previous, next)
Dec. 30
Report of the Select Committee on Postage, The Athenæum, Dec. 30, 1843, p. 1156-1158 (link).






1844   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight & Co., vol. 17, 1844, 96 p.
  • General Post Office, London, pp. 80-87 (link).
  • Property and Income Tax, Stamps [revenue], Assessed Taxes, pp. 91-95 (link).
(previous, next)

The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight & Co., 1844, 252 p.
  • Stamp Duties, p. 146 (link).
  • Post Office Revenue, p. 162 (link).
  • Chronicle of the Session of Parliament, June 27, Select Committee on Post-Office Improvement, pp. 204-205 (link).
(previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1844.   (previous, next)

Acts of Parliament Relating to the Post Office, From 1 & 2 Victoria to 7 & 8 Victoria, 1838-1844, London, 1844.

Reprinted 1976, The Britannia Stamp Bureau, Tiverton, Devon, England, [6] + 94 + [18] p.
  • -- APRL, GOV DOC

Poole's Gentleman's Pocket Memorandum Book for 1844, London, 1844.

Marshall's New British Gentleman's Pocket Book for 1844, London, 1844.

Suggestions upon the Nature and Disadvantages of the Present Post Office Tariff showing the injurious effects of the high rates of postage, especially on letters containing enclosures ... / respectfully dedicated to the members of the Post Office Committee and members of Congress generally by their obedient servants Edmund Charles & Son, New York : E. Charles, 1844, 15 p.

'Franklin', An Examination of the Probable Effect of the Reduction of Postage, Washington, 1844, 7 p.
  • -- APN vol. 3, pp. 115-131.
  • -- Crawford Catalogue, col. 122; British Library shelfmark Crawford 921 (26).
    • The author is misidentified as Benjamin Franklin, while it is actually a pseudonym.
  • Originally published Feb. 3, 1844, in The Madisonian newspaper (Washington).
Jan.
Rowland Hill, The State and Prospects of Penny Postage, as Developed in the Evidence Taken before the Postage Committee of 1843, with incidental remarks on the Testimony of the Post-Office Authorities and an Appendix of Correspondence, London : Charles Knight & Co., 1844, 4 + 84 p.
  • Reviewed, The Athenæum, Feb. 3, 1844, pp. 110-111 (link).
  • Reviewed, The Westminster Review, Mar. 1844, vol. 41, pp. 312-315 (link).
    • Copied, Campbell's Foreign Semi-Monthly Magazine, Philadelphia, April 1, 1844, vol. 5, pp. 488-489 (link).
  • Reviewed, Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, Apr. 1844, vol. 11, p. 272 (link).
  • -- APRL, G5741 .P856 H647s (Closed Stacks)
  • -- NPM, HE6935 .H64 1844
  • -- NPM, HE6935 .H64 1837 (Rare Books); bound with Rowland Hill's Post Office Reform, second ed.
    • Inscribed "from the Author", and in a different hand, "The first Edition".
  • -- GK entry number 33925, Reel 3083.
See also, http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/r/C10929174
Jan.
Lysander Spooner, The Unconstitutionality of the Laws of Congress, Prohibiting Private Mails, Printed for the American Letter Mail Company, New York : Tribune Printing Establishment, Jan. 1844, 24 p. 
The American Letter Mail Company, founded by Lysander Spooner, began service on Jan. 23, 1844.  Postage stamps were issued, 6¼ ¢ each, discounted at "20 for a dollar" [image]; this was 1/3 the rate charged by the US Post Office, and encouraged prepayment.  Spooner was openly trying to force a reduction in postage rates, and to challenge the government's postal monopoly.  The service closed just before the US PO rate reduction of July 1, 1845.
  • See also
    • Spooner's pamphlets of 1849 and 1850.
    • Charles Shively, Biography from The Collected Works of Lysander Spooner, 1971, chapter 4 (link).
  • Spooner stated in 1850, p. 24 (link), "On the 23d day of January, 1844, my mails were started from New York, to Philadelphia, Baltimore and Boston, ...". Also, p. 26 (link), "On the 29th of January, 1844, six days after my mails were started ...".
  • First day of service in Baltimore, Jan. 25, 1844; this office closed in March 1844.
  • On March 5, 1844, the US House of Representatives requested information from the Postmaster General.  This was delivered March 30, 1844 (link).
  • Spooner sold his interest in the company in June 1844; it is not known who bought it.
  • See also, The Habit of Tyranny: A Study of Private Mails in 1844, To-Day, Boston, Jan. 7, 1892, vol. 3, p. 710-716 (link).

Further "Independent Mails" operating in the US in 1844-1845, and issuing their own postage stamps, were

  • Hale & Co., Boston to New York, etc., commenced Dec. 21, 1843, with stamps from Mar. 1844
  • Letter Express (Wells & Co.), Buffalo to Chicago, June 1844 to Nov. 1844
  • Pomeroy's Letter Express, Buffalo, Albany and New York, June 1844 to Oct. 1844
  • Brainard & Co., New York City, Albany and Troy, NY, commenced June or July 1844
  • Overton & Co., Boston to New York, commenced July 1844
  • Hoyt's Letter Express, Rochester, NY, July 1844 to Aug. 1844
  • Wm. Wyman's Letter Office, Boston to New York, commenced Aug. 1, 1844; sold to Overton, Dec. 14, 1844.
  • Hartford Mail Route (Hartford Letter Mail, Hartford Mail Company), between Hartford, Conn., and New York, commenced July or Aug. 1844 (ref, Hartford Letter Mail, by Richard Frajola)

All these were closed by the end of June 1845, having been made uncompetitive and illegal by the new US postal law.  For more, see Michael S. Gutman, ed., Eastern Independent Mail and Express Mail Companies, 1840-1845, 2016; Scott Trepel's introductory essay is especially useful for perspective on the postal pressures in 1830's and 1840's.

Feb. 17
Results of Penny Postage, The Penny Magazine, Feb. 17, 1844, pp. 63-64 (link).
  • -- Crawford Catalogue, col. 677; British Library shelfmark Crawford 1937.
Mar. 16
Stamped Postage Paper, Illustrated London News, Mar. 16, 1844, vol. 4, p. 172 (link).
  • Illustration of the oval "Postage One Penny" used for the British letter sheets soon to be issued.
Mar. 30
Post Office Reform, The New World, New York, Mar. 30, 1844, vol. 8, pp. 404-406 (link).
Apr.
National Acknowledgment for the Penny Postage, The Spectator, Apr. 13, 1844, vol. 17, p. 348 (link).
Apr.
The Penny Postage and the Post Office, [Henry Cole], The British and Foreign Review, Apr. 1844, vol. 17, pp. 166-198, 354 (link).
  • See also, The Eclectic Magazine, New York, Jun. 1844, pp. 146-160 (link).
Apr.
Mr. Rowland Hill, Post Office Reform, The Eclectic Review, Apr. 1844, vol. 16, pp. 459-475 (link).
May
Pierre Jouhaud, Les postes, Seront-elles sacrificés aux chemins de fer? Observations sur le projet de loi des crédits extraordinaires, Paris : Charpentier, May 1844, 56 p.
May 11
The Metropolitan Post Office, The Family Herald, May 11, 1844, vol. 2, p. 13 (link) [image].
May 13 [Anon.], The Administration of the Post Office, from the Introduction of Mr. Rowland Hill's Plan of Penny Postage up to the Present Time, London : J. Hatchard and Son, 1844, 218 + [1] p.; dated May 13, 1844, p. 218.
  • Reviewed, The Athenæum, May 25, 1844, p. 475 (link).
May 15
Franking Privilege and Rates of Postage, US House of Representatives, 1844, 31 p.
May 18
Royal Institution, The Athenæum, May 18, 1844, p. 458 (link).
  • A summary of the manufacture of British postage stamps and postal stationery.
  • See also, Penny Post, The Family Herald, Jun. 1, 1844, vol. 2, p. 62 (link).
May 31
Messrs. Waghorn & Co.'s Overland Guide to India: By Three Routes to Egypt, London : Smith, Elder and Co.
Jun. 8
The Family Herald, Jun. 8, 1844, vol. 2, p. 75 (link).
  • A fund-raising proposal for the national testimonial to Rowland Hill -- one penny added to the postage, for a period of one week [image].
  • Is this the beginning of semi-postal stamps?  A similar concept had been noted in The Athenæum, Feb. 17, 1844 (link), but in a way that separates the transaction: "if only the value of a single postage stamp be contributed by every person who has experienced the advantage" of penny postage.  This was repeated in The Westminster Review, March 1844 (link).
Jun. 22
Post-Office Espionage, The Spectator, Jun. 22, 1844, p. 13 (link).
Jun. 22
Post-Office Espionage, The Illustrated London News, June 22, 1844, vol. 4, p. 393-394 (link).

Jun. 22, 29
The General Post Office, The Illustrated London News, June 22, 1844, vol. 4, p. 400-402 (link); June 29, 1844, vol. 4, p. 409-410 (link).
June 30
Cl. Grasset, Réforme postale: Un Cri d'Alarme sur l'Esclavage de la Pensée, Paris, 1844, 32 p.
Jul. 6 National Testimonial to Mr. Rowland Hill, The Athenæum, July 6, 1844, p. 632 (link).
  • The list of subscribers included J.E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S. (£ 2), and Mrs. Gray, (also £ 2).  Other notables included Charles Babbage, Augustus de Morgan, Harriet Martineau and G.H. Lewes.  The campaign ended on Nov. 30, 1844, with a total of £ 13,360.
  • See also, Feb. 17, 1844, p. 155; July 6, p. 632; July 13, p. 654; Sep. 14, p. 840; Oct. 19, p. 940; Oct. 26, p. 961-962; Nov. 2, p. 1006; Nov. 9, p. 1029; Nov. 16, p. 1036; Nov. 23, p. 1059; Nov. 30, p. 1100.
  • Similar advertisements appeared in The Economist, The Spectator, The Railway Chronicle, The Gardeners' Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, The Law Times (which has a list of subscribers).
  • John (APN vol. 3, p. 396, note 10) cites The Economist, Nov. 16, 1844, vol. 2, p. 1440 (link), in connection with Amasa Walker's pamphlet on Cheap Postage.  An earlier notice is from Oct. 26, 1844 (we are still looking for more).
Aug. 5
Report from the Secret Committee on the Post-Office, Together with the Appendix, London : House of Commons, Aug. 1844, 116 p.
  • The Post Office "Committee of Secrecy" was appointed on July 2, 1844, to inquire into "the state of the law in respect of the detaining and opening of letters at the General Post Office".  http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/r/C2648610
  • The report is dated Aug. 5, 1844; it contains much historical information about the British Post Office.  The Harvard example has additional notes, some typewritten, some handwritten (hard to read in the Google scan).
  • See also, Edward Raymond Turner, The Secrecy of the Post, The English Historical Review, July 1918, vol. 33, pp. 320-327 (link).
  • Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1122, realized £126 (link).

The People's Post-Box, containing a letter for the country, giving a full disclosure of that extraordinary and well executed plot (with the names, residences, and description of the plotters) through the means of which was discovered the atrocious system adopted in the "secret or inner office" of the General Post Office, of indiscriminately violating private letters without any legal warrant for so doing ..., with other important information ... in consequence of the gross attempts of the guilty parties to frustrate the endeavours of ... Thomas S. Duncombe ... in obtaining an open and impartial inquiry, London : E. Hancock, 1844?, 12 p.
  • -- GK entry number 33622.36, Reel 3052.
Aug. 10
The Letter-Opening at the Post-Office, The Spectator, Aug. 10, 1844, p. 15 (link).
Aug. 24
More Letter-Opening at the Post-Office, The Economist, Aug. 24, 1844, vol. 2, p. 1133 (link).  From The Times.
Aug. 26
Report from the Parliamentary Committee of the Loyal National Repeal Association of Ireland on the Opening of Post-Office Letters, Dublin : J. Browne, 1844, pp. 299-305.
  • "Read at a meeting of the Association...the 26th day of August, 1844."
  • -- GK entry number 33995, Reel 3088.
Sep.
Mazzini and the Ethics of Politicians, W. [William Edward Hickson], The Westminster Review, Sep. 1844, vol. 42, pp. 225-251 (link).
  • Giuseppe Mazzini, the Italian revolutionary, was able to deduce that his letters were being delayed at the Post Office in London by observing alterations in the postmarks, which indicated the date and hour of receipt (p. 242).  That the letters were being opened required some other methods.
Sep.
Letter-Opening at the Post-Office, the article on this subject, from no. LXXXII of the Westminster Review for September, 1844, entitled Mazzini and the Ethics of Politicians, to which is added some account of the brothers Bandiera, London : J. Watson, 1844, 31 p.
  • -- GK entry number 34006, Reel 3088.
  • Reviewed, The Westminster Review, Dec. 1844, vol. 42, pp. 525-526 (link).
Sep.
Retrospect of the Session, Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, Sep. 1844, vol. 11, pp. 608-612 (link), esp. p. 611.
Nov.
Post-Office Espionage, [Anthony Panizzi], The North British Review, Nov. 1844, vol. 2, pp. 257-295 (link).
  • Antonio Panizzi (1797-1879), in 1843, was the Keeper of the Dept. of Printed Books at the British Museum, where J.E. Gray was the Keeper of the Zoological Dept.  Panizzi had been appointed Extra-Assistant Keeper of Printed Books in 1831, Keeper in 1837, and Principal Librarian (museum director) in 1856; he retired in 1866 and was knighted in 1869.
For the episode of Mazzini's mail being opened by the British Post Office, see also,
Nov. 25
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Nov. 25, 1844.
  • Reprinted with the reports of 1841-1846, Theron Wierenga, 1977.
  • -- APRL, GOV DOC P 1.1:841-46 1841-1846 (reprint)
(previous, next)
Dec.
Convention de Poste entre Sa Majesté le Roi des Français et Son Altesse Sérénissime le Prince de la Tour et Taxis, Paris, Dec. 1844, 80 p.






1845   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight & Co., vol. 18, 1845, 96 p.
  • General Post Office, London, pp. 80-87 (link).
  • Property and Income Tax, Stamps [revenue], Assessed Taxes, pp. 91-95 (link).
(previous, next)

The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight & Co., 1845, 260 p.
  • Stamp Duties, pp. 140-141 (link); Colonial Postage, p. 145 (link).
(previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1845.   (previous, next)

Post Office Edinburgh and Leith Directory, Edinburgh : Ballantyne & Hughes.
Published 1845 - 1908.

Edward Tremayne, Tremayne's table of post offices in the state of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia : Thomas, Cowperthwait & Co., 1845, 26 p.
  • (Shoemaker 45-6470)

Picture of Washington and Its Vicinity for 1845: ... To which is added The Washington Guide, containing a Congressional Directory, Residences of Public Officers, and Other Useful Information, Washington : William Q. Force, 1845.
Jan.
Amasa Walker, Cheap Postage and How to Get it, Boston, 1845, 7 p.
  • At head of title: Boston Post, Extra .... January 1845.
  • Note at end of text: "The foregoing articles were written for the Boston Post by Amasa Walker ...".  There are six articles, each signed "One of the People".
Jan.
Letters from Naples -- The Post Office and Foreign Letters, Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, Jan. 1845, vol. 12, pp. 44-45 (link).
Jan. 16
John Milton Niles, Speech on the post office bill, delivered in the Senate ... January 16, 1845, Washington, 1845, p.
  • (Shoemaker 45-4884)
Jan. 27
William Duhurst Merrick, Speech of Mr. Merrick of Maryland, on the bill to reduce the rates of postage, and to regulate the use and correct the abuse of the franking privilege; delivered in the Senate, January 27, 1845, Washington : Gales and Seaton, 1845.
  • (Shoemaker 45-4344)
Feb.
Post Office Reform, American Review, Feb. 1845, vol. 1, pp. 199-214 (link).
Mar. 1
Thomas J. Paterson, Speech on the post office reform and the reduction of the rates of postage; in the House, March 1, 1845, Washington, 1845, 14 p.
  • (Shoemaker 45-5086)
Apr. 12, etc.
To Correspondents, The Family Herald, Apr. 12, 1845, vol. 2, p. 776 (link).
The Family Herald, Jun. 7, 1845, vol. 3, p. 77 (link).
Postage Stamps, The Family Herald, Aug. 9, 1845, vol. 3, p. 216 (link).
Postage Stamps, The Family Herald, Aug. 16, 1845, vol. 3, p. 233 (link).
  • Four small notes on postage rates and postage stamps.  [images]
Apr. 21
Regulations prescribed by the Postmaster General, to exhibit and enforce the provisions of the Act of Congress of March 3, 1845, 16 p.
  • USPBC, no title page, with additional unidentified newspaper clipping showing Regulations dated March 12, 1847.
  • p. 9, dated Cave Johnson, Postmaster General, April 21, 1845.
July 1
U.S. postage rates reduced, by Act and Resolution of Mar. 3, 1845.
July 15
New York postmaster provisional postage stamps issued
Dec. 1
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Dec. 1, 1845.
  • Reprinted with the reports of 1841-1846, Theron Wierenga, 1977.
  • -- APRL, GOV DOC P 1.1:841-46 1841-1846 (reprint)
(previous, next)

Fitzhugh Coyle, Letter to the President of the United States, respecting certain debts due by the Post Office Department, and the conduct of P.G. Washington, auditor in relation thereto, [Washington? 1845?].
  • (Shoemaker 45-1729)

Photographic portraits






1846   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight & Co., vol. 19, 1846, 96 p.
  • General Post Office, London, pp. 79-87 (link).
  • Property and Income Tax, Stamps [revenue], Assessed Taxes, pp. 90-94 (link).
(previous, next)

The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight & Co., 1846, 260 p.
  • Post Office revenue, 1843-4, p. 185-186 (link); Newspaper Stamps, 1842-44, p. 208 (link).
(previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1846.   (previous, next)

James Robert Pears, The Bath Post Office considered with respect to the Lord's day, Bath, 1846.

James Robert Pears, A reply to Dr. Vaughan's "letter on the late post-office agitation", Bath, 1846.
(The reference where this was found is probably wrong, since Vaughan's letter appeared in 1849.)

Post Office Brighton Directory, London : Kelly & Co., 1846, 190 p.  (Norton 681).

The June Edition of the Post Office London Directory, 1846, London : W. Kelly & Co., 1846, 47th ed.
At head of title: Under the immediate and special patronage of Her Majesty's Postmaster-General.

Reprinted 1994, Michael Winton.
  • title, preface, index and adverts, p. 1-20; map.
  • Official directory, p. 21-68.
    • Post Office (General), p. 55-57.
  • Commercial and Professional directory, p. 69-572.
  • Court directory, p. 573-688.
  • Parliamentary directory, p. 689-724.
  • Postal directory, p. 725-792.
    • Obliterating stamps (numbered postmarks), p. 765-768.

A. Hochsteyn, Dictionnaire-postal de la Belgique, ou, Résumé alphabétique et chronologique des lois, décrets, arrêtés, règlements et décisions en matière de postes, depuis 1789 jusqu'en 1845, Brussels, 1846.

Edward Tremayne, Table of Post-Offices, containing an alphabetical list of post offices throughout the United States, with an appendix, of the United States and British tariffs, Philadelphia : Thomas, Cowperthwait & Co., 1846, 321 + 37 p.
  • (Shoemaker 46-7101)
Mar. 25
Cl. Grasset, Réforme Postale, Appel à la France et à la Belgique, Paris, 1846, 32 p.
Jul.
The Two Graves, Fraser's Magazine for Town and Country, London, July 1846, vol. 34, pp. 13-27 (link).
  • On p. 15, a report of a tavern named The Queen's Head [image].
Jul. 30
John Lorimer Graham, Appeal of John Lorimer Graham, late Post-Master of New-York, to the Comptroller of the Treasury, from decision of the auditor of the Post Office Department, rejecting from his accounts the items of expenditure for fitting up the new Post-Office buildings in Nassau-street and Chatham-Square, dated 30th July, 1846, New-York : Pudney & Russell, 1846, 107 p.
  • -- GK entry number 34715.21, Reel 3177.
  • (Shoemaker 46-2962)
Oct.
[Review of] J.R. M'Culloch's A Treatise on the Principles and Practical Influence of Taxation and the Funding System, The Westminster and Foreign Quarterly Review, Oct. 1846, vol. 46, p. 1-28 (link).
  • Postal matters are discussed on p. 10-11; M'Culloch's position on postage is attacked.
Oct.
Patronage of Commissions, The Westminster and Foreign Quarterly Review, Oct. 1846, vol. 46, p. 222-245 (link).
  • The penny postage law is reviewed for comparison to the Poor-law Amendment Bill, p. 233-235.
Oct. 1
Table of Post Offices in the United States on the first day of October, 1846, Washington : John T. Towers, 1846, xvi + 357 + [1] p.
Oct. 1
Postage Convention between the General Post Office of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the General Post Office of the Kingdom of Prussia, Signed at London 1st October, 1846, London, 1847, 26 + 70 + 2 p.
Nov.
Rowland Hill appointed Secretary to the Postmaster General.

Dec. 7
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Dec. 7, 1846.
  • 29th Congress, 2nd Session.
  • [Senate] US Serial Set, 493 S.doc.1/8.
  • [House] US Serial Set, 497 H.doc.4/8.
  • Reprinted with the reports of 1841-1846, Theron Wierenga, 1977.
  • -- APRL, GOV DOC P 1.1:841-46 1841-1846 (reprint)
(previous, next)






1847   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight, vol. 20, 1847, 96 p.
  • General Post Office, London, pp. 79-87 (link).
  • Property and Income Tax, Stamps [revenue], Assessed Taxes, pp. 90-94 (link).
(previous, next)

The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight, 1847, 260 p.
  • Post Office revenue, 1845, p. 167 (link).
(previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1847.   (previous, next)

Harris Brothers' Universal Post Office Guide, London, 1847, 51 p.

Wolverhampton Post Office Directory for 1847, Wolverhampton : J. Bridgen, 4 + 146 p.  (Norton 658).

Das Preußische Postwesen, Elberfeld und Iserlohn : Julius Bädeker, 1847, iv  + [1] + 176 p.

G. F. [Gottlieb Friedrich] Hüttner, Beiträge zur Kenntniß des [deutschen] Postwesens, Leipzig : Gustav Brauns.

Laws and Regulations for the Government of the Post Office Department, with an appendix ; printed by order of the Postmaster General, Washington, 1847, xii + 99 + 70 + 24 + 36 p.
  • USPBC
  • Authorized by Act of June 19, 1846 (link).
Postal Laws and Regulations of the United States of America, 1847, reprint by Theron Wierenga, 1979.
  • -- APRL, GOV DOC P 1.11:847X
Feb.
The Post System, J.S. Duke, De Bow's Review, Feb. 1847, vol. 3, pp. 149-160; Feb. 1848, vol. 5, pp. 152-163.
Feb. 5
An Olive Leaf for the English People, Ocean Penny Postage, Bury and Norwich Post, Feb. 3, 1847, p. 4.  [BLN]
Ocean Penny Postage, Liverpool Mercury, Feb. 5, 1847, p. 3.  [BLN] [APN vol. 3, p. 401, note 45]
An Ocean Penny Postage, Leicester Chronicle, Feb. 6, 1847, p. 4.  [BLN]
Ocean Penny Postage, Northern Star, Feb. 6, 1847, p. 3.  [BLN]
Ocean Penny Postage, Bradford Observer, Feb. 11, 1847, p. 8.  [BLN]
An Olive Leaf for the English People, Ocean Penny Postage, The Practical Mechanic and Engineer's Magazine, Glasgow, Feb. 20, 1847, vol. 2, 2nd series, p. 115 (link).
An Olive Leaf for the English People, Ocean Penny Postage, Manchester Times, Feb. 27, 1847, p. 6.  [BLN]
etc.
  • Letter from Elihu Burritt, dated London, Jan. 25, 1847.  The "Olive Leaf" versions are the most complete; the third and fourth are snippets only.
  • Further letters from Burritt with different dates appeared under the same or similar title.

Account of the Rise and Progress of the Present System of Contracting for the Conveyance of the Public Mails by Private Steam Vessels, 1847, 48 p.

The Post Office : Its Present State and Capabilities, The Topic, London, Dec. 1846 - June 1847, vol. 3, p. 175-188 (link).
May
Léon Faucher, La réforme de la taxe des lettres en France et en Angleterre, Revue des deux mondes, Paris, May 1847, tome 18, p. 468-484.
Aug. 14
Ocean Penny Postage, Chambers's Edinburgh Journal, Aug. 14, 1847, pp. 111-112 (link).
  • Copied, The Living Age, Nov. 6, 1847, vol. 15, p. 249 (link).
Aug. 21
Ocean Penny Postage - Will it Pay?, Elihu Burritt, The Family Herald, Aug. 21, 1847, vol. 5, p. 254 (link).
  • see also, Leeds Mercury, July 10, 1847; Glasgow Herald, July 19, 1847.  [BLN]
Oct.
[Review of] The Overland Mail and the Austrian Lloyds, The Westminster and Foreign Quarterly Review, Oct. 1847, vol. 48, p. 254 (link).
Dec. 6
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Dec. 6, 1847.
  • Reprinted with the 1848 and 1849 reports, Theron Wierenga, 1976.
  • -- APRL, GOV DOC P 1.1:847-49 1847, 1848, 1849 (reprint)
  • -- APRL, GOV DOC P 1.1:847-52 1847, 1848, 1849, 1850, 1851, 1852 (reprint)
(previous, next)






1848   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight, vol. 21, 1848, 96 p.
  • General Post Office, London, pp. 80-88 (link).
  • Stamps [revenue], Assessed Taxes, pp. 92-94 (link).
(previous, next)

The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight, 1848, 264 p.
  • A. De Morgan, On Decimal Coinage, p. 5-21 (link).
  • Electric Telegraphs, p. 67-81 (link).
  • Post Office, pp. 139-140 (link).
  • Post Office Revenue, p. 154 (link), p. 179 (link)
(previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1847-48.  (previous, next)

The American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge, for the Year 1848, Boston : James Munroe & Co., vol. 19, 1847; preface dated Sep. 30, 1847.
  • Post Office Department, p. 100-102 (link).
  • Post-office Establishment, p. 128-135 (link).
  • Postal Laws of Mar. 1, 1847, p. 204-205 (link); Mar. 3, 1847, p. 209-211 (link).
(previous, next)

The Small Edition of the Post Office London Directory, 1848, London : W. Kelly & Co., 1848, 49th ed., preface date Dec. 1847.
  • title, preface, almanac, notices, index and addenda, pp. 1-24.
    • At head of title: Under the immediate and special patronage of Her Majesty's Postmaster-General.
  • Official directory, pp. 25-80.
    • Post Office (General), pp. 63-66.
  • [Street directory, p. 97-617]
  • Commercial and Professional directory, pp. 619-1174.
  • [Trades directory]
  • [Law and Other Public Offices]
  • Court directory, pp. 1680-1760.
  • Parliamentary directory, pp. 1761-1790.
  • Postal directory, pp. 1791-1863.
    • Obliterating stamps (numbered postmarks), p. 1835-1838.
  • City directory, p. 1976-1978
    • The gap in pagination is intentional; nothing is missing.
  • Banking directory, pp. 1979-2026.
  • Assurance directory, pp. 2027-2075.
  • Public companies, pp. 2076-2077.
  • Miscellaneous [adverts], p. 2078-2092.

Post Office Directory of Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Nottinghanshire and Rutlandshire, London : Kelly & Co., 1848

William James, Suggestions for the General Improvement of the Post Office, London : Hugh Hughes, 1848, 4 + 16 pp. + 2 plates.

Uppgifter om Postväsendet i England [Data on Postal Services in England], Stockholm, 1848, 62 p.

G.F. [Gottlieb Friedrich] Hüttner, Die Centralisation der deutschen Posten, Leipzig : Gustav Brauns, 1848, 48 p.; preface date May 31, 1848.

Alois Dessáry, Die österreichische Post-Verfassung, Vienna, 1848, xxiv + 452 p.; preface date 1847.
Jan.
[Joshua Leavitt], Post-Office Reform, The New Englander, Jan. 1848, vol. 6, pp. 111-120 (link).
Jan.
The Post-Office, United States Magazine and Democratic Review, Jan. 1848, vol. 22, pp. 18-26 (link).
Mar. 29
Constitution of the Cheap Postage Association, Organized at Boston, March 29th, 1848, Boston, 1848, 4 p.
  • Includes a list of officers, directors and members (entrance fee, 25 cents).
    • Edward Brooks, president; Joshua Leavitt, corresponding secretary; Charles B. Fairbanks, recording secretary; Otis Clapp, treasurer.
    • Eight directors, including Amasa Walker.
    • 200 members, including the officers and directors.
  • -- APN vol. 3, pp. 151-156.
Apr.
The British System of Postage, The New Englander, Apr. 1848, vol. 6, pp. 153-165 (link).
Apr. 26
Joshua Leavitt, Cheap Postage, Remarks and Statistics on the Subject of Cheap Postage and Postal Reform in Great Britain and the United States, Boston : For the Cheap Postage Association by Otis Clapp, 1848, 72 p.; preface date Apr. 26, 1848.
  • The British stamps and postal stationery are described (pp. 37-40), with illustrations of British postal markings (link).
May 26
New York Cheap Postage Association, organized, May 26, 1848 (ref).

Barnabas Bates, A Brief Statement of the Exertions of the Friends of Cheap Postage in the City of New York, New York : Wm. C. Bryant & Co. Printers, for the New York Cheap Postage Assosciation, 1848, 26 p.
  • The "statement" is a review of the US postal laws and postage rates, and attempts to change them.  It is followed by the New York edition of Joshua Leavitt's Cheap Postage, 52 p., with illustrations on pp. 27-28 (link), and omitting the appendix.
June
Ocean Penny Postage, Elihu Burritt, letter dated London, May 6, 1847, with a poem in 12 stanzas, "Send the Letters, Uncle John", by H.G. [Henry Gardiner] Adams.
  • [Hunt's] Merchants' Magazine and Commercial Review, June 1848, vol. 18, p. 667 (link).
  • -- Crawford Catalogue, col. 1; British Library shelfmarks Crawford 857 (2), Crawford 1816 (last leaf).
  • see also, pp. 29-31 of Burritt's Ocean Penny Postage, Dec. 1848 (below)
The poem alone,
  • Cambridge Chronicle, vol. IV, no. 46, Nov. 15, 1849 (link).
  • H.G. Adams, Peace Lyrics, London : C. Gilpin, [1850], p. 40-44 (link).  The book was dedicated to Elihu Burritt.  "Peace Envelopes" were also available from Adams (link); see Gilpin, 1850 (below).
  • Gems from the Spirit Mine, London : C. Gilpin, 1850, p. 63-67 (link); a volume to honor Elihu Burritt.
  • Agricultural Journal and Transactions of the Lower Canada Agricultural Society, Aug. 1852, vol. 5, p. 255 (link); 7 stanzas only.
  • Random Readings, for the Rail, ..., London : Groombridge, 1854, p. 146, under the title "A Plea for Ocean Penny Postage", "by the editor" (link).

See also,

  • Eileen Cleere, "The Shape of Uncles": Capitalism, Affection, and the Cultural Construction of the Victorian Family, PhD thesis, Rice Univ., Houston, 1996, 233 p.  (link).
  • Eileen Cleere, Avuncularism : Capitalism, Patriarchy, and Nineteenth-century English Culture, Stanford Univ. Press, 2004, ch. 5, "Send the Letters, Uncle John": Trollope, Penny-Postage Reform, and the Domestication of Empire (link, link).
June
Taxes on Knowledge and the Newspaper Press, Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, June 1848, vol. 15, pp. 351-356 (link).
July
France -- The Press, Pamphlets, Books, &c., Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, July 1848, vol. 15, pp. 465-469 (link).
July
[Joshua Leavitt], Our Post-Office, The New Englander, July 1848, vol. 6, pp. 393-404 (link).
Aug. 26
Edwin Hill was appointed Supervisor of the Stamping Department, at the Board of Inland Revenue in Britain.  He became Comptroller of the Stamping Dept. on April 13, 1863, and retired May 7, 1872.  His son Ormond Hill, already his assistant since May 1841, became Assistant Supervisor in Aug. 1854, Deputy Comptroller in April 1863, then Comptroller on May 7, 1872, and retired Mar. 10, 1876.
Sep.
Die Fürstlich Thurn- und Taxische Postanstalt, Heinrich Meidinger, Zeitschrift des Vereins für deutsche Statistik, Berlin, Sep. 1848, vol. 2, no. 9, p. 853-861 (link).
Oct.
Cheap and Uniform Postage in India, The Calcutta Review, Oct. 1848, vol. 10, pp. 521-566 (link).
Nov. 23
Henry Archer's patent for "Improvements in facilitating the division of sheets or pieces of paper, parchment, or other similar substances", No. 12,340, issued Nov. 23, 1848.  (link, link).
  • -- Crawford Catalogue, col. 8; British Library shelfmark Crawford 901 (12), published 1857.
The British Government paid Archer £4000 in 1854 for the rights to the patent, which enabled postage stamps to be perforated at a reasonable cost.  Edwin Hill played an important role in the development of Archer's machinery.

See also,
  • [Newton's] London Journal of Arts, Sciences and Manufactures, 1849, vol. 35, p. 84-86 and plate VI (link)
  • Mechanics' Magazine, Museum, Register, Journal, and Gazette, May 26, 1849, vol. 50, p. 501-502 (link)
  • The Practical Mechanics' Journal, May 1852, vol. 5, p. 46 (link)
  • The Patent Journal and Inventor's Magazine, vol. 7, p. 70
  • Archer's Perforating Machine, The Philatelic Record, June 1893, vol. 15, p. 143-146 (link)
  • Ray C. Simpson, Peter J. Sargent, Stamp Perforation: The Somerset House Years, 1848 to 1880, 2006.
  • Wikipedia.
Dec.
Elihu Burritt, Ocean Penny Postage, Its Necessity Shown and its Feasibility Demonstrated, London : C. Gilpin, 1848/1849, 32 p.
  • dated at end: Christmas, 1848; but that is only the date of the poem that ends the pamphlet
  • 1849
    • -- GK entry number 36562.4, Reel 3325.
  • See also, E.D. Bacon, Ocean Penny Postage, Stanley Gibbons Monthly Journal, Jan. 1899; St. Martin's-le-Grand, 1899, vol. 9, pp. 164-172 (link), 219-221 (link).
Dec. 2
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Dec. 2, 1848.
  • Reprinted with the 1847 and 1849 reports, Theron Wierenga, 1976.
  • -- APRL, GOV DOC P 1.1:847-49 1847, 1848, 1849 (reprint)
  • -- APRL, GOV DOC P 1.1:847-52 1847, 1848, 1849, 1850, 1851, 1852 (reprint)
(previous, next)
Dec. 15
Postal Convention, U.S. and Great Britain, December 15, 1848.






1849   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight, vol. 22, 1849, 96 p.
  • General Post Office, London, pp. 80-88 (link).
  • Licenses, Stamps [revenue], Assessed Taxes, pp. 90-94 (link).
(previous, next)

The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight, 1849, 264 p.
  • Newspaper Postage, p. 148 (link).
(previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1849.   (previous, next)

S. Gille Heringa, Nederlandsch Jaarboekje der Posterijen voor 1849 [Netherlands Yearbook of the Post Office], Tilburg, 1849, 1st vol., 216 p.
  • Reviewed, Het Leeskabinet, 1849, pp. 43-44 (link).
  • Noted, Algemeen Handelsblad, 24 Mar. 1849; Nieuw Rotterdamsche Courant, 4 May 1849 [http://www.delpher.nl]
Continued annually, 1849-1864, then 1871/72, 1873/75, 1876/78, the last two by Pieter Keg.

Salomo Gille Heringa, 1816-1895, was Director of the Post Office in Tilburg (1845), Vlissingen (1851), Schiedam (1855), and Utrecht (1864), then retired in 1872.  See also, T. de Klaver, Uit de postgeschiedenis van Tilburg (2), S. Gille Heringa, postdirecteur in Tilburg (1849-1852).  Gille Heringa's extensive book and manuscript collection was sold at auction in Dec. 1873 (link); there was a small stamp collection, lot 47 of "Diverse Voorwerpen", "Various Objects", the final item in the sale (link).

The Yearbook is generally organized in five or more parts, which are paginated separately,
  • Kalender [Calendar]
  • Nederland [Dutch Postal Services]
  • Buitenland [Foreign Postal Services]
  • Mengelwerk [Miscellany]
  • Aanhangsel [Appendix] or Bijblad [Supplement]

New York Cheap Postage Association, Cheap postage : a dialogue on cheap postage, between Messrs. A. and B. in Washington City, New York, 1849, 8 p.
  • -- APN vol. 3, pp. 271-283.
  • There were three editions; the second and third were identical.

Lysander Spooner, Who Caused the Reduction of Postage in 1845?, Boston : A.J. Wright, 1849.

Later editions, 1850, 1851.


Edward Tremayne, Tremayne’s table of post-offices : containing an alphabetical list of post-offices throughout the United States : distances from Washington, D.C., state and territorial capitals respectively : also exhibiting the post-offices in each state, as well as county, Philadelphia : Thomas, Cowperthwait & Co., 1849, 321 p.
  • -- LCP (ref), the copyright notice is dated 1845
  • p. 7-14, act and resolution of Mar. 3, 1845
  • p. 15-23, regulations, issued Apr. 21, 1845
  • p. 24-321, table of post offices, in three parts; alphabetical, alphabetical by state, alphabetical by county in the state
Jan.
The Post Office Official Monthly Director, London : Letts, Son, and Steer, 1849.
  • Sanctioned by the Postmaster-General, and edited by F.W. Herbert, of the Foreign Post-Office Dept., but the copyright was held by the publisher (link).  This was the same arrangement held by Frederic Kelly and his predecessors for the Post Office London Directory.
  • Noted, Philosophical Magazine, Feb. 1849, p. 158-159, http://books.google.com/books?id=RwzFZ-btb0UC
  • Reviewed, The Times, London, Mar. 14, 1849, p. 6; see also, Jan. 2, 1854, p. 9.
British Library,

Feb.
Speech of Hon. W.L. [William Leftwich] Goggin, of Virginia, in favor of Uniform Postal Charges, and to restrain the Franking Privilege, delivered in the House of Representatives, February 21, 1849, Washington, 1849, 11 p.

The Duties on Paper, Advertisements, and Newspapers, Speech of Mr. Edward Edwards (compositor), delivered at a meeting of printers, held at the London Mechanics' Institution, May 22, 1849, 2 p.
June 20
The Newspaper Stamp Abolition Committee, to the Parliamentary and Financial Reformers of the United Kingdom, London, June 20, 1849, 4 p.

See also, a page from Oct. 1849, http://books.google.com/books?id=DTFcAAAAQAAJ  [Oxford]

Oct.
Joshua Leavitt, The Finance of Cheap Postage, Hunt's Merchants' Magazine, Oct. 1849, vol. 21, pp. 410-414 (link).
As a separate pamphlet, New York : George W. Wood, 1849, 7 p.,

G.F. [Gottlieb Friedrich] Hüttner, Die Postverfassung des Königreichs Sachsen, Leipzig : Gustav Brauns, 1849, xiv + 286 p.; preface date Oct. 31, 1849.

Charles John Vaughan, D.D., A Letter on the Late Post Office Agitation, London : John Murray, 1849, 15 pp.
  • -- GK entry number 36557, Reel 3325.
  • Noted in The Publishers' Circular, Dec. 1, 1849, p. 397 (link).
Dec.
Joshua Leavitt, The Moral and Social Benefits of Cheap Postage, Hunt's Merchants' Magazine, New York, Dec. 1849, vol. 21, pp. 601-610 (link).
As a separate pamphlet, New York : Geo. W. Wood, 1849, 12 p.,
Dec. 3
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Dec. 3, 1849.
  • Reprinted with the 1847 and 1848 reports, Theron Wierenga, 1976.
  • -- APRL, GOV DOC P 1.1:847-49 1847, 1848, 1849 (reprint)
  • -- APRL, GOV DOC P 1.1:847-52 1847, 1848, 1849, 1850, 1851, 1852 (reprint)
(previous, next)






1850   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight, vol. 23, 1850, 96 p.
  • General Post Office, London, pp. 80-88 (link).
  • Licenses, Stamps [revenue], Assessed Taxes, pp. 90-94 (link).
(previous, next)

The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight, 1850, 264 p.
  • A Chronological Account of the Connexion between England and India, pp. 70-79 (link); continued from 1832, p. 24-45.
    • Waghorn's 1845 overland mail. p. 74 (link).
  • Inland Revenue, pp. 127-128 (link); Stamps, &c. Allowances, p. 139 (link). 
  • Post-Office, p. 188 (link).
  • Austrian postage rates and stamps, p. 261 (link).  Chronicled as of Sep. 26, but the stamps had been issued June 1.
(previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1850.   (previous, next)

Captain N. [Nathaniel Alexander] Staples, Observations on the Indian Post Office, and Suggestions for its Improvement, London : Smith, Elder, and Co., 1850, 79 p.

S. Gille Heringa, Nederlandsch Jaarboekje der Posterijen voor 1850, Tilburg, 1850, 2nd vol., 339 p.
  • -- NPM,  HE6185.N4 H54 1850
  • Reviewed, Vaderlandsche Letteroefeningen of Tijdschrift ..., 1850, pp. 303-305 (link).
  • Advertised, Nieuwsblad voor den Boekhandel, 28 Mar. 1850 (link), 30 May 1850 (link).
  • pp. 36-43 of the Mengelwerk [Miscellany], an article on postage stamps (De Frankeringszegels), which is continued in 1851.  A translation (partial?) appeared in Deutscher Post-Almanach für das Jahr 1851, as Die Frankomarken, p. 111-113 (link).

Post-Wet benevens eene duidelijke aanwijzing van het vertrek en de aankomst der onderscheidene posten zoo binnen- als buitenlandsch, van en aan het Postkantoor te Utrecht, met bijvoeging der Portlijst van Utrecht, Utrecht : Kemink & Zoon, 1850, 20 p.

Charles John Vaughan, D.D., A Letter on the Late Post Office Agitation, London : J. Murray, second ed., 1850, 35 pp.

Post Office Directory of Birmingham, with Staffordshire and Worcestershire, London : W. Kelly & Co., 1850, 698 p.

Thom's Irish almanac and official directory, with the Post Office Dublin City and County Directory, for 1850, Dublin : A. Thom, 1850, 7th ed., xlix + 1068 p.
  • -- GK entry number 36775, Reel 3351.
  • Review of the 1847 edition, excerpt from The Banker's Magazine, Jan. 1847 (link).

A Post Office Directory for Nova Scotia, London : J. Hartnell, 1850, 33 p.

Lysander Spooner, Who Caused the Reduction of Postage? Ought He to be Paid?, Boston : Wright & Hasty's Press, 1850, 71 p.

Includes a discussion of Mr. Spooner's Private Mails (p. 24) and Hale & Co's Letter Mail (p. 49-52).  Spooner was seeking compensation, in the manner of the National Testimonial funds raised for Rowland Hill in 1844 (see above), and a similar campaign for Barnabas Bates in 1848 (ref).

Previous edition, 1849; later edition, 1851.


C. [Charles] Gilpin, [Advertisement sheet giving an illustration of the so-called "Peace envelopes" and particulars of "Peace Lyrics" by H.G. Adams and "Peace Reading-Book"], London, [1850], 1 p.
  • -- Crawford Catalogue, col. 141; British Library shelfmark Crawford 898 (7).
  • See Adams, June 1848, above.
  • See also, Bodily, Jarvis and Hahn, British Pictorial Envelopes of the 19th Century, Chicago, 1986, p. 206-207 (link).

Tremayne's Table of the Post Offices in the United States, New York : W.F. Burgess, 1850.
Jan.
E. Loriston Pratt, The United States Post Office directory : showing the name and location of all the post towns, post offices, and post masters, in the United States ; carefully revised and corrected from authentic government records, New York : Stringer & Townsend, 1850.

Pratt's United States Post Office Directory, reprint by Theron Wierenga, 1981, 109 p.
  • -- APRL, G3701 .P855 P913u 1981, GOV DOC P 1.10/4:850X
Jan.
Joshua Leavitt, The Practical Working of Cheap Postage, Hunt's Merchants' Magazine, Jan. 1850, vol. 22, pp. 44-53 (link).
As a separate pamphlet, New York : G. W. Wood, 1850, 12 p.,

Joshua Leavitt, The Finance of Cheap Postage, Hunt's Merchants' Magazine, Oct. 1849.
Joshua Leavitt, The Moral and Social Benefits of Cheap Postage, Hunt's Merchants' Magazine, Dec. 1849.
Joshua Leavitt, The Practical Working of Cheap Postage, Hunt's Merchants' Magazine, Jan. 1850.
Separately published, bound together,
Jan. 28
Rowland Hill, [about Sunday Post Office opening], Parliamentary Return.
Parliamentary Papers, 1850 (185) LIII.183.
Feb.
First Report of the Newspaper Stamp Abolition Committee, London, Feb. 1, 1850.
Feb.
The Post-Office, [Andrew Wynter], Fraser's Magazine for Town and Country, London, Feb. 1850, vol. 41, pp. 224-232 (link, link).
  • A remarkably observant article on the functioning of the British post office.
  • Partly copied by The Penny Illustrated News, Feb. 23, 1850, p. 139 (link).
Feb. 7
New York Cheap Postage Association, An Address of the Directors of the New York Cheap Postage Association to the People of the United States, New York : Wm. C. Bryant & Co., 1850, 16 pp.; dated Feb. 7, 1850.
  • -- APN vol. 3, pp. 317-332.
  • Includes a list of officers, directors and member donors.  Compared to the Boston association, the names and donor amounts indicate considerable interest from the merchants of New York.
  • $10 was donated by Rawdon, Wright, Hatch and Edson, who then held the printing contract for US postage stamps.
Feb. 19
Report of the Committee on Literature of the Senate of New York, on Postage Reform, Made to the Senate, Feb. 19, 1850, Albany : Weed, Parsons & Co., 1850.
  • -- APN vol. 3, pp. 333-343.
Mar.
Copenhagen Post Office, Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, March 1850, vol. 17, pp. 162-165 (link).
Mar.
There was a testimonial dinner for Robert Wallace.
  • Extracts from the Newspaper Press of 1850, relative to a Testimonial to Robert Wallace, Esq., formerly M.P. for Greenock, for his successful labours as the Pioneer of Post Office Reform, 20 p.
    • Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1125, realized £334 (link); with "an original handwritten note from Rowland Hill to John Dillon dated 3 July 1850 informing him of the organisers' names who were responsible for the Testimonial".
  • Extract from the Greenock Advertiser, Mar. 8, 1850, Testimonial to Robert Wallace, Esq., late M.P. for Greenock, The Pioneer of Postage Reform, in The Life of Sir Rowland Hill, vol. 1, p. 529-533 (link).
  • Bristol Mercury, Mar. 16, 1850, etc.
Mar. 30
Valentine's Day at the Post-Office, [Charles Dickens and W.H. Wills], Household Words, Mar. 30, 1850, vol. 1, pp. 6-12 (link).
  • Translated into Dutch, as De Brievenpost in Engeland op St.-Valentijns-Dag, in Nederlandsch Jaarboekje der Posterijen voor 1851 (see below).
  • Reprinted in W. Henry Wills, Old Leaves: Gathered from Household Words, 1860, pp. 9-23.
  • See also, The Quarterly Review, June 1850, vol. 87, p. 69, below.
Charles Dickens was the editor of Household Words, and William Henry Wills the sub-editor.  All articles in the journal were unsigned; the authors are noted here from the index by Anne Lohrli, http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=iau.31858036688301.  Dickens and Wills visited Rowland Hill while preparing this article (ref).
Apr.
Taxes on Knowledge, Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, April 1850, vol. 17, pp. 234-239 (link).
Apr.
Wet op het Brievenport en regeling der brieven-posterijen, met tarief der porto's, Amsterdam : Weytingh & Van der Haart, April 1850, 48 p.
[1855], 2nd printing, 16 p., http://books.google.com/books?id=txVjAAAAcAAJ  [KBNL]
[1855], 4th printing, 16 p., http://books.google.com/books?id=RB1jAAAAcAAJ  [KBNL]
Apr. 6
The Penny Illustrated News, London, April 6, 1850, p. 192 (link).
  • "Why were there no postage labels in Henry the Eighth's time?  Because a Queen's head wasn't worth a penny."
May 25
Old Postage Stamps, The Family Herald, May 25, 1850, vol. 8, p. 59 (link) [image].
Jun.
Mechanism of the Post Office, [Sir Francis Bond Head], The Quarterly Review, Jun. 1850, vol. 87, pp. 69-115 (link)   [excerpt, p. 115].
  • See also, The London Quarterly Review, American edition, Jul. 1850, vol. 87, pp. 37-62 (link).
  • Reprinted with some alterations in Sir Francis B. Head, Descriptive Essays, London : John Murray, 1857, "The London Post-Office", vol. 2, p. 286-368 (link).
Head visited Rowland Hill while preparing this article (ref).
Jun. 1
What is a Million?, The Family Herald, Jun. 1, 1850, vol. 8, p. 79 (link) [image].
June 13
Verordnung, die Posttaxordnung und den Deutsch-Österreichischen Postverein vom 13. Juni 1850 betreffend, Dresden : G.G. Meinhold, 1850, ii + 51 p.
June 22
Convenção postal entre sua magestade a rainha de Portugal e dos Algarves e sua magestade a rainha de Hespanha assignada em Madrid pelos respectivos plenipotenciarios aos 22 de junho de 1850, Lisbon, 1850, 7 p.
Jun. 22
The Sunday Screw, [Charles Dickens], Household Words, Jun. 22, 1850, vol. 1, pp. 289-292 (link).
  • Proposals for Sunday opening of the British Post Office.
  • See also, pp. 378-379 for letters of comment.
Jul.
James Gilbert, The Postal Changes, Viewed with Reference to Additional Facilities for the Transit of Letters and Newspapers, Especially on Saturday; the Acceleration and Increase of Day-Mails, Etc, London, 1850, 16 p.
Jul.
Lord Ashley's Address to the Queen on Sunday Post-Office Regulations, G.S. Venables, Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, Jul. 1850, vol. 17, pp. 447-448 (link).
Jul.
The United States Postal Guide and Official Advertiser, Washington, D.C., July 1850 - June 1852, vol. 1 - 2.

Reprinted by Theron Wierenga, 1982.

  • -- APRL, Journals
Jul. 13
Post Office Regulations, The Family Herald, Jul. 13, 1850, vol. 8, p. 175 (link) [image].
Nov.
The Comfortable Doctrine of Compensations, Fraser's Magazine for Town and Country, London, Nov. 1850, vol. 42, pp. 473-479 (link) [image].
Nov. 30
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Nov. 30, 1850.
  • Reprinted with the 1851 and 1852 reports, Theron Wierenga, 1976.
  • -- APRL, GOV DOC P 1.1:850-52 1850, 1851, 1852 (reprint)
  • -- APRL, GOV DOC P 1.1:847-52 1847, 1848, 1849, 1850, 1851, 1852 (reprint)
(previous, next)
Dec. 14
Cheap postage. Proceedings of a public meeting, held at the Merchants' Exchange in the City of New York, December 14th, 1850, 1 p. broadside.






1851   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight, vol. 24, 1851, [8] + 96 p.
  • General Post Office, London, pp. 80-88 (link).
  • Licenses, Stamps [revenue], Assessed Taxes, pp. 90-94 (link).
(previous, next)

The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight, 1851, 264 + [16] p.
  • Ocean Steamers - Foreign Mails, pp. 52-75 (link).
  • Stamp Duties, pp. 126-129 (link).
  • Post-Office, p. 169 (link).
  • Memorandum of the New Stamp Duties, pp. 219-226 (link).
(previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1851.   (previous, next)

[Charles] Knight's Cyclopædia of London, "The Post Office", London, 1851, pp. 137-144 (link).

Report of the Commissioners for Post Office Enquiry, Calcutta, 1851.

J.W. [John Weeds] Lettis, The Post Office Guide, London : Longman, 1851, 130 p. + 13 p. (adverts); latest internal date, Feb. 1851.
There is apparently a second edition, also 1851, but this may be an incorrect reference (ref).

William Gaspey, Tallis's Illustrated London, in Commemoration of the Great Exhibition of All Nations in 1851, Forming a Complete Guide to the British Metropolis and its Environs, London : John Tallis, 1851.

Johann Herz, Die Post-Reform im deutsch-österreichischen Post-Vereine, Vienna : Carl Gerold, 1851, xiv + 234 p.
  • Postal markings of Britain and Belgium are illustrated on p. 223-224 (link).

S. Gille Heringa, Nederlandsch Jaarboekje der Posterijen voor 1851, Tilburg, 1851, 3rd vol., 341 p.
  • De Brievenpost in Engeland op St.-Valentijns-Dag, p. 23-35 of the Mengelwerk [Miscellany] (link).
    • From Household Words, Mar. 30, 1850 (see above).
    • Followed by Naschrift van den Redacteur, p. 35-37, with reference to the Quarterly Review.
  • Nog Iets over de Frankeerzegels [Another Thing about the Postage Stamps], continued from the 1850 edition, p. 75-79 of the Mengelwerk [Miscellany] (link) [image].

J.C.W. le Jeune, Het brieven-postwezen in de Republiek der Vereenigde Nederlanden [The Letter Posts in the Republic of the United Netherlands], Utrecht, 1851, 376 p.

Eli Bowen, The United States Post-Office Guide, New York : Appleton, 1851, 4 + 352 + 2 pp.

Table of Post Offices in the United States on the First Day of January 1851, Washington, 1851, with addenda to May 31, 1851, 4 + 311 + 151 p.

In the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations, London, 1851, Class 22, Entry 269, "T.H. Smith, 20 Brewer Street, Golden Square.  Designer and Manufacturer.  Design for a centre ornament for a ceiling, composed of 5,000 postage stamps." (ref).  The catalogue description in French has more detail about the ceiling, the Star of the Order of the Garter - "Dessin d'ornement central pour plafond, formant l'étoile de l'Ordre de la Jarretière, composé de 5,000 timbres-poste." (ref).  Smith also exhibited a stove ornament, painted with flowers, on wire (ref).

Charles Knight, George Dodd, ed., Cyclopædia of the Industry of All Nations, New York : George P. Putnam, London : Charles Knight, 1851, xxiv p. + 1806 col. + 37 plates.
Mar. 8
Letters and Letter-Writers, Eliza Cook's Journal, Mar. 8, 1851, vol. 4, pp. 302-303 (link).
Mar. 22
Postage Stamps - To Collectors of the Used Postage Stamps, The Family Herald, Mar. 22, 1851, vol. 8, p. 747 (link) [image].
May 3
The Coming Fortunes of Snails, Eliza Cook's Journal, May 3, 1851, vol 5, pp. 14-15 (link).
  • Snail Mail, with a grin.
May 10
To Envelope Folders, The Family Herald, May 10, 1851, vol. 9, p. 27 (link) [image].
June 5, etc.
First Report from the Select Committee on Steam Communications with India, &c.
Second Report from the Select Committee on Steam Communications with India, &c.
Index to Reports from Select Committee on Steam Communications with India, &c.
Jul. 5
Intended Compulsory Prepayment by Stamps, The Family Herald, Jul. 5, 1851, vol. 9, p. 158 (link) [image].
Aug. 9
Ocean Penny Postage - Will It Pay?, Eliza Cook's Journal, Aug. 9, 1851, vol. 5, pp. 234-235 (link).
Sep.
Notes on the Newspaper Stamp, Fraser's Magazine for Town and Country, London, Sep. 1851, vol. 44, pp. 339-354 (link).
Sep. 20
Origin of the Penny Postage, Eliza Cook's Journal, Sep. 20, 1851, vol. 5, p. 335 (link).
  • From The Times.
Sep. 27
The Birth and Parentage of Letters, [Henry Morley], Household Words, Sep. 27, 1851, vol. 4, pp. 1-6 (link).
Oct. 29
Death of William Wyon, R.A., engraver of British medals and stamp dies.
Nov.
Robert W. Stuart Mackay, The Canada Directory: containing the names of the professional and business men of every description, in the cities, towns, and principal villages of Canada: together with a complete post office directory of the province ... brought down to November, 1851, Montreal : John Lovell, 1851, 692 p.
Nov.
Postal Reform - Cheap Postage, B.B. [Barnabas Bates], Harper's New Monthly Magazine, Nov. 1851, vol. 3, pp. 837-839 (link).
Nov.
Beknopte handleiding omtrent de bestemming en het gebruik der Postzegels [Concise Guide regarding the purpose and use of postage stamps], 's Gravenhage, 1851, 12 p.
  • Introducing the first postage stamps of the Netherlands, to be issued 1 Jan. 1852.
  • See also the Resolution of Nov. 24, 1851, p. 104-111 (link).
Nov. 1
The Collector, Eliza Cook's Journal, Nov. 1, 1851, pp. 9-10 (link).
  • A survey of collecting styles and habits, but no mention of collecting postage stamps.
Nov. 22
A Black Eagle in a Bad Way, [Grenville Murray, Henry Morley, Charles Dickens], Household Words, Nov. 22, 1851, vol. 4, pp. 193-195 (link).
  • Postal espionage in Vienna, p. 195.
Nov. 29
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, Nov. 29, 1851.
  • Reprinted with the 1850 and 1852 reports, Theron Wierenga, 1976.
  • -- APRL, GOV DOC P 1.1:850-52 1850, 1851, 1852 (reprint)
  • -- APRL, GOV DOC P 1.1:847-52 1847, 1848, 1849, 1850, 1851, 1852 (reprint)
(previous, next)






1852   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight, vol. 25, 1852, [12] + 96 p.
  • General Post Office, London, pp. 80-88 (link).
  • Licenses, Stamps [revenue], Assessed Taxes, pp. 90-94 (link).
(previous, next)

The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight, 1852, 260 + [16] p.
  • Great Exhibition of 1851: Facts and Figures, pp. 20-40 (link).
    • Ad hoc postal service, pp. 38-39 [image].
(previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1852.   (previous, next)

The Small Edition of the Post Office London Directory, London : W. Kelly & Co., 1852, 53rd ed., preface date Nov. 1851.
http://specialcollections.le.ac.uk/cdm/ref/collection/p16445coll4/id/167103  [Leicester]
  • title, preface, index and addenda, p. 1-18.
  • Official directory, p. 19-80.
    • Post Office (General), p. 63-66.
  • [Street directory, p. 81-576, in the Complete Edition]
  • Commercial and Professional directory, p. 577-1084.
  • [Trades directory and Law directory, p. 1085-1566, in the Complete Edition]
  • Court directory, p. 1567-1719.
  • Parliamentary directory, p. 1720-1755.
  • Postal directory, p. 1756-1828.
    • Obliterating stamps (numbered postmarks), p. 1799-1802.
  • [City directory, Conveyance directory, etc., p. 1829-1964 in the Complete Edition]
  • Banking directory, p. 1965-2013.
  • Assurance directory, p. 2014-2068.
  • Miscellaneous [adverts], p. 2069-2087.

S. Gille Heringa, Nederlandsch Jaarboekje der Posterijen voor 1852, Middelburg (Netherlands), 1852, 4th vol.

Murray's Official Handbook of Church and State, London, 1852, preface date Dec. 1851.
  • The Post Office, pp. 244-248 (link).
Jan. 3
Ocean Penny Postage between Great Britain and France, The Family Herald, Jan. 3, 1852, vol. 9, p. 575 (link) [image].
Feb. 21
The Queen's Head, [James Hannay, W.H. Wills], Household Words, Feb. 21, 1852, vol. 4, pp. 510-513 (link).
Feb. 21
Newspapers, Eliza Cook's Journal, Feb. 21, 1852, vol. 6, pp. 258-260 (link).
  • About the Penny Postage and related matters.
Mar. 20
Post-Office Money-Orders, [Charles Dickens, W.H. Wills], Household Words, Mar. 20, 1852, vol. 5, pp. 1-5 (link).
Dickens visited Frederic Hill at the Money Order Office while preparing this article (ref).
Apr. 3 Laws and Regulations for the Government of the Post Office Department, Washington, 1852, viii + 114 + 94 + 28 p. 

Postal Laws and Regulations of the United States of America, 1852, reprint by Theron Wierenga, 1980.

  • Contains additional material and notations by future-PMG Horatio King.
  • USPBC (in two parts)
  • -- APRL, GOV DOC P 1.11:852X
May 2
Convenção postal entre sua magestade a rainha de Portugal e dos Algarves e sua magestade el-rei dos Belgas assignada em Bruxellas pelos respectivos plenipotenciarios em 2 de maio de 1852, Lisbon, 1853, 7 p.
May 15
The Great British Gum Secret, [... Sommerville], Household Words, May 15, 1852, vol. 5, pp. 202-203 (link).
  • The secret?  It was potato starch.  But the secret was already guessed in 1844 (The Athenæum, May 18, 1844, see above).
May 21
Report from the Select Committee on Postage Label Stamps; together with the proceedings of the committee, minutes of evidence, and index.

House of Commons, Session 1852, paper no. 386, 273 p. 
Parliamentary Papers 1852 (386) vol. XV.1
PDF [ProQuest]
Spink, London, June 10, 1998, Sale 1178, lot 1126, realized £437 (link).

Neues Post-Handbuch, Enthaltend, Das Gesetz über das Postwesen vom 5 Juni 1852, Kreuznach, 1852, 88 p.
Jun. 12
King Charles's Post-Bag, [William Blanchard Jerrold], Household Words, Jun. 12, 1852, vol. 5, pp. 293-295 (link).
Jul. 24
Printed Forgeries, [Sidney Laman Blanchard], Household Words, Jul. 24, 1852, vol. 5, pp. 444-450 (link).
  • Postmarks as evidence, p. 450.
Oct. 21
Curiosities of London Life: The Street Stationer, The Leisure Hour, Oct. 21, 1852, vol. 1, pp. 682-683 (link).
Nov.
To All Postmasters in Canada, Quebec, Nov. 1852, Post Office Dept. Order No. 10, 1 p.
Nov. 26
Colonial Postage Association, Journal of the Society of Arts, Nov. 26, 1852, vol. 1, pp. 2, 4-5 (link).
Dec. 4
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Dec. 4, 1852.
  • 32nd Congress, 2nd Session.
  • [Senate] US Serial Set, 659 S.exdoc.1/12.
  • [House] US Serial Set, 674 H.exdoc.1/12.
  • Reprinted with the 1850 and 1851 reports, Theron Wierenga, 1976.
  • -- APRL, GOV DOC P 1.1:850-52 1850, 1851, 1852 (reprint)
  • -- APRL, GOV DOC P 1.1:847-52 1847, 1848, 1849, 1850, 1851, 1852 (reprint)
(previous, next)
Dec. 10
Official Returns of Foreign and Colonial Postage, Journal of the Society of Arts, vol. 1, pp. 28-30 (link).
Dec. 20
Papers Relating to the Postal Communication, &c. in India.






1853   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight, vol. 26, 1853, [16] + 96 p.
  • General Post Office, London, pp. 80-87 (link).
  • Licenses, Stamps [revenue], Assessed Taxes, pp. 90-94 (link).
(previous, next)

The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight, 1853, 272 + [26] p.
  • Electric Telegraphs, p. 34-53 (link).
(previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1852-53.  (previous, next)

Post Office Directory of Jersey, Guernsey, and Hampshire, London : Kelly & Co., 1853.

Post Office Directory of Cambridge, Norfolk, and Suffolk, London : Kelly & Co., 1853.

Great Britain, Board of Inland Revenue, One Penny Stamps, A Popular Explanation of the Statute requiring a stamp duty of one penny on receipts and orders for money, and of some provisions of former acts bearing thereupon, With a Schedule of Stamp Duties, London, 1853, 14 p.

Markus Johann Heinzel, Oesterreichisches Post-Handbuch, Olmütz, 1853, xvi + 300 + [1] p.; preface date Dec. 1852.

Third ed., Vienna, 1856, http://books.google.com/books?id=WLfDTxMy3jUC  [ÖNB]
Sixth ed., Vienna, 1873, http://books.google.com/books?id=yxhaAAAAcAAJ  [BSB]


Wilhelm Görges, Braunschweigisches Post- und Eisenbahn-Taschenbuch für das Jahr ...

S. Gille Heringa, Nederlandsch Jaarboekje der Posterijen voor 1853, Middelburg, 1853, 5th vol.

H.J. Koenen, Over de adressen van brieven, Nieuw Nederlandsch taalmagazijn, tijdschrift voor de werkdadige beoefening, vergelijking en veredeling onzer moedertaal, 's Gravenhage [The Hague], 1853, vol. 1, p. 139-142 (link).
  • About the addresses of letters, New Dutch language magazine, journal for the active practice, comparison and improvement of our native language.

Rode's United States Post Office Directory and Postal Guide, New York : Charles R. Rode, 1853, 146 + [4] p.

International Postage Association, Colonial Penny Postage, London, 1853, 8 + 20 pp.
From a meeting of the Society of Arts, Feb. 8, 1853.

[non-philatelic]
W.A.S. Westoby, The Laws of Belgium which affect British Subjects, Brussels, 1853.
Jan. 8
Cuthbert Bede, A Perspective View of Twelve Postage-Stamps, Notes and Queries, London, Jan. 8, 1853, series 1, vol. 7, pp. 35-36 (link).
About advertising swindles, paid in postage stamps, not about the stamps themselves.
Jan. 14
Foreign Postage Reform, Journal of the Society of Arts, Jan. 14, 1853, vol. 1, pp. 89-90 (link).
  • Information from Manuel de Ysasi.
Jan. 28
Colonial Penny Postage, Journal of the Society of Arts, Jan. 28, 1853, vol. 1, p. 112 (link).
Feb. 5
Barryhooraghan Post-Office, [Mrs. Hoare], Household Words, Feb. 5, 1853, vol. 6, pp. 503-504 (link).
Feb. 11
Colonial Postage Association, Journal of the Society of Arts, Feb. 11, 1853, vol. 1, pp. 133-136 (link).
Feb. 18
Colonial and International Postage, Journal of the Society of Arts, Feb. 18, 1853, vol. 1, pp. 147-148 (link).
Mar. 4
The Post-Office in the United States, Journal of the Society of Arts, Mar. 4, 1853, vol. 1, p. 178 (link).
Mar. 11
Colonial Postage, Journal of the Society of Arts, Mar. 11, 1853, vol. 1, pp. 186-187 (link).
Mar. 25
Colonial Postage, Journal of the Society of Arts, Mar. 25, 1853, vol. 1, pp. 206-207 (link).
Apr. 1
Canadian Postal Reform, Journal of the Society of Arts, Apr. 1, 1853, vol. 1, p. 220 (link).
Apr. 8
Colonial Postage, Journal of the Society of Arts, Apr. 8, 1853, vol. 1, pp. 231-232 (link).
Apr. 15
Colonial Postage, Journal of the Society of Arts, Apr. 15, 1853, vol. 1, p. 251 (link).
Apr. 22
Colonial Postage, Journal of the Society of Arts, Apr. 22, 1853, vol. 1, pp. 257-259 (link).
May 27
Ocean Penny Postage, Journal of the Society of Arts, May 27, 1853, vol. 1, p. 323 (link).
June 1
John Warren Hunt, Wisconsin Gazetteer, Containing the Names, Locations, and Advantages, of the Counties, Cities, Towns, Villages, Post Offices, and Settlements, ... in the State of Wisconsin, Madison, 1853, 256 p; preface date June 1, 1853.
July 4
The Times, London, July 4, 1853, about perforated postage stamps.
Aug. 11 Newspaper Correspondence Across the Sea, The Leisure Hour, Aug. 11, 1853, vol. 2, p. 528 (link).
Oct.
The Uniform Postal Stamp on Newspapers: its cheapness, fairness, and beneficial working, Edinburgh Review, Oct. 1853.

Accounts and Papers of the House of Commons, Post Office and Mails, for the Session 4 Nov. 1852 to 20 Aug. 1853, vol. XCV.
Dec. 1
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Dec. 1, 1853.
  • Reprinted with the 1854 report, Theron Wierenga, 1976.
  • -- APRL, GOV DOC P 1.1:853-54 1853, 1854 (reprint)
(previous, next)
Dec. 1
Postage-stamped Letter-paper, The Leisure Hour, Dec. 1, 1853, vol. 2, p. 784 (link) [image].
Dec. 15 The Mails to the Antipodes, The Leisure Hour, Dec. 15, 1853, vol. 2, pp. 813-815 (link).
Dec. 31
Iron Incidents, [John Capper], Household Words, Dec. 31, 1853, vol. 8, pp. 412-415 (link).
  • p. 415, on the London and North-Western Railway [image].






1854   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Charles Knight, vol. 27, 1854, [4] + 96 p.
  • General Post Office, London, pp. 80-87 (link).
  • Licenses, Stamps [revenue], Assessed Taxes, p. 91-94 (link).
(previous, next)

The Companion to the Almanac, London : Charles Knight, 1854, 274 + [14] p.
  • On a Decimal Coinage, A. De Morgan, pp. 5-15 (link).
  • Stamp Duties, pp. 101-102, 113-116, 118 (link).
(previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1854.   (previous, next)

[non-philatelic]
Decimal Coinage: what it ought and what it ought not to be, By One of the Million [Dr. John Edward Gray], London : James Ridgway, 1854, 47 p.
See also, for Dr. Gray's participation, which included a collection of small coins,
  • List of Books and Pamphlets on the Decimal-Coinage Question, Journal of the Society of Arts, Aug. 10, 1855, pp. 639-642 (link).
  • Preliminary Report of the Decimal Coinage Commissioners, London, 1857, pp. 38-69, 356-365.

Post Office Directory of Warwickshire, Worcestershire, Staffordshire and Birmingham, London : Kelly & Co., 1854.

Post Office Directory of Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Huntingdonshire, with Berkshire, Northamptonshire, and Oxfordshire, London : Kelly & Co., 1854.

Post Office Directory of Berkshire, Northamptonshire, and Oxfordshire, with Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, and Huntingdonshire, London : Kelly & Co., 1854, 2nd ed., preface date June 1854.

Post Office Directory of Sheffield with the Neighboring Towns and Villages, London : Kelly & Co., 1854, 247 p.; preface date Aug. 1854.  (Norton 860).

Gilmour's Winchester Almanac and Post-Office Directory, Winchester : G.&H. Gilmour, 1854, "14th annual issue", 60 p.  (Norton 369, Shaw 517).

F.W. Heidemann, G.F. [Gottlieb Friedrich] Hüttner, Das Postwesen unserer Zeit, Leipzig : Carl Geibel.

S. Gille Heringa, Nederlandsch Jaarboekje der Posterijen voor 1854, Middelburg, 1854, 6th vol., 343 p.

The United States Post Office Directory and Postal Guide, New York : Charles R. Rode, 1854, 147 p.

Henry Derecourt, Colonial and International Postage, Information on Postal Affairs, London, 1854, 62 p.

The First Newspaper Stamp, Charles Knight, Once Upon a Time, London : John Murray, 1854, vol. 2, p. 1-5 (link).

Seven Years in the Boston Post Office, By an Ex-Clerk, [Boston, 1854?].
  • -- APN vol. 1, p. 177-183.
Jan. 1
Table of post offices in Canada and the names of postmasters, Quebec, 1854, 75 p., preface date Jan. 1, 1854, hand-corrected to Aug. 1, 1854.
Jan. 13
Colonial Postage, Journal of the Society of Arts, Jan. 13, 1854, vol. 2, pp. 132, 151 (link).
Feb. 2
Post-office Yarn, The Leisure Hour, Feb. 2, 1854, vol. 3, p. 80 (link) [image].
Feb. 17
W.C. Aitken, Ancient and Modern Metal-Working, Journal of the Society of Arts, Feb. 17, 1854, vol. 2, pp. 227-235, esp. pp. 234-235 (link).
Feb. 22
Elihu Burritt, Ocean Penny Postage, Washington : H. Polkinhorn, [1854], 4 p.
Feb. 24
Australian Postage Grievance, Journal of the Society of Arts, Feb. 24, 1854, vol. 2, pp. 260-261 (link).
Mar. 30
Indian Tappal Runners, The Leisure Hour, Mar. 30, 1854, vol. 3, pp. 199-201 (link).
Apr.
Rowland Hill was appointed Secretary to the General Post Office, replacing Lt. Col. W.L. Maberly, who had opposed most of Hill's suggestions for post office reform. 

William Leader Maberly, 1798-1885, had been Secretary to the Post Office since 1836, while Hill had been Secretary to the Postmaster-General since 1846; the two positions were simply merged.
Apr.
Our National Post-Office, The New-York Quarterly, Apr. 1854, vol. 3, pp. 1-19 (link).
Apr. 21
Postal Anomalies, Journal of the Society of Arts, Apr. 21, 1854, vol. 2, pp. 393, 400-401 (link).
May 25
The Foot-Post, The Leisure Hour, May 25, 1854, vol. 3, pp. 326-327 (link).
Jun. 9
The Newspaper Stamp, Journal of the Society of Arts, Jun. 9, 1854, vol. 2, pp. 499-500 (link).
Jul. 1
The Incomplete Letter-Writer, [Dudley Costello], Household Words, Jul. 1, 1854, vol. 9, pp. 474-476 (link).
Aug.
The Yearly Journal of Trade, London : Charles Pope, 1854-55, 24th ed., preface date Aug. 9, 1854.
Aug. 25
Manuel de Ysasi, Manuel de YsasiColonial and International Postage Association, Journal of the Society of Arts, Aug. 25, 1854, vol. 2, pp. 686-687 (link).


Aug. 25
Postage Reductions - France and Sardinia, Journal of the Society of Arts, Aug. 25, 1854, vol. 2, pp. 686-687 (link).
Oct.
Gov't. of India, The New Postage Act.
Oct. 20
Reduction of Postage to New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia, Journal of the Society of Arts, Oct. 20, 1854, vol. 2, p. 801 (link).
Oct. 28
How to Get Paper, [Harriet Martineau], Household Words, Oct. 28, 1854, vol. 10, pp. 241-245 (link).
Nov. 17
[review of activities], Journal of the Society of Arts, Nov. 17, 1854, vol. 3, p. 7 (link).
Nov. 25
Down Stairs in Somerset House, Chambers's Journal of Popular Literature, Science and Arts, Edinburgh, Nov. 25, 1854, vol. 2, p. 337-340 (link).
  • Repeated in, Littell's Living Age, Boston, Jan. 6, 1855, vol. 44, p. 34-39 (link). 
  • See also, SCM, June 1, 1868 (link).
Dec. 4
Report of the [US] Postmaster General, Washington, dated Dec. 4, 1854.
  • 33rd Congress, 2nd Session.
  • [Senate] US Serial Set, 747 S.exdoc.1/17.
  • [House] US Serial Set, 778 H.exdoc.1/17.
  • Reprinted with the 1853 report, Theron Wierenga, 1976.
  • -- APRL, GOV DOC P 1.1:853-54 1853, 1854 (reprint)
(previous, next)
Dec. 8
Perforating Postage, Receipt, and Other Stamps, Journal of the Society of Arts, Dec. 8, 1854, vol. 3, p. 62 (link).
Dec. 9
The Great Red Book, [George A. Sala], Household Words, Dec. 9, 1854, vol. 10, pp. 404-408 (link).
  • About Kelly's Post-Office London Directory, whose cover was red.
Dec. 29
Reduction of French Postage, Journal of the Society of Arts, Dec. 29, 1854, vol. 3, p. 101 (link).

The English Cyclopædia, A New Dictionary of Universal Knowledge, London : Bradbury and Evans, 1854-1862, 23 vol. with index.
  • Conducted by Charles Knight.  A list of contributors to the Cyclopædia appears in the Index volume, p. 167-168 (link).
  • This was the final successor to The Penny Cyclopædia, 1833-1843, and many articles were updated or rewritten from there, as Knight held the rights to both publications.
  • An American edition was published in New York, by D. Appleton and Co.; it appears to be identical except for the title pages.
  • Reissued, 1866-68, with supplements.
  • more details and links
Geography
  • vol. 1, 1854, AA - Bogotà (link)
  • vol. 2, 1854, Bohair - Georgia (link)
  • vol. 3, 1855, Georgia - Olney (link)
  • vol. 4, 1855, Olonetz - Zwolle (link)
Natural History
  • vol. 1, 1854, Aardvark - Clionidæ (link)
  • vol. 2, 1854, Clivina - Gyrosteus (link)
  • vol. 3, 1855, Habenaria - Nerita (link)
  • vol. 4, 1856, Neritidæ - Zygophyllaceæ (link)
Biography
  • vol. 1, 1856, Aaron - Byzantine Historians (link)
  • vol. 2, 1856, Caballero - Fust (link)
  • vol. 3, 1856, Gaddi - Lytton (link)
  • vol. 4, 1857, Maas - Quintus Curtius Rufus (link)
  • vol. 5, 1857, Rabelais - Thirlwall (link)
  • vol. 6, 1858, Thirty Tyrants (of Athens) - Zwingli (link), with supplement
Arts and Sciences
Synoptical Index, 1862 (link)

The same, reissued, with supplements
  • Geography, First Division of "The English Cyclopædia"
    • vol. 1, 1866, AA - Bogotà (link)
    • vol. 2, 1866, Bohair - Georgia (link)
    • vol. 3, 1867, Georgia - Olney (link)
    • vol. 4, 1867, Olonetz - Zwolle (link)
  • Natural History, Second Division of "The English Cyclopædia"
    • vol. 1, 1866, Aardvark - Clionidæ (link)
    • vol. 2, 1866, Clivina - Gyrosteus (link)
    • vol. 3, 1867, Habenaria - Nerita (link)
    • vol. 4, 1867, Neritidæ - Zygophyllaceæ (link)
  • Biography, Third Division of "The English Cyclopædia"
    • vol. 1, 1866, Aaron - Byzantine Historians (link)
    • vol. 2, 1867, Caballero - Fust (link)
    • vol. 3, 1867, Gaddi - Lytton (link)
    • vol. 4, 1867, Maas - Quintus Curtius Rufus (link)
    • vol. 5, 1867, Rabelais - Thirlwall (link)
    • vol. 6, 1868, Thirty Tyrants (of Athens) - Zwingli (link), with supplement
    • Supplement, 1872 (link)
      • Warren De La Rue, col. 453
      • Charles Knight, col. 744-746.  "With him also originated the proposal of a penny stamp for franking newspapers by post, a suggestion afterwards applied with such marked success when the penny postage was adopted for letters."
  • Arts and Sciences, Fourth Division of "The English Cyclopædia"
    • vol. 1, 1866, A - Bathing (link)
    • vol. 2, 1866, Baths and Washhouses, Public - Cohort (link)
    • vol. 3, 1867, Coin - Eyre (link)
    • vol. 4, 1867, F - Jig (link)
    • vol. 5, 1867, Joinery - Nux Vomica, Alkaloids of (link)
    • vol. 6, 1867, O - Release (link)
    • vol. 7, 1868, Relics - Tacking (link)
    • vol. 8, 1868, Tactics, Military - Zymome (link), with supplement






1855   (previous, next)   (1500, 1600, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870)

The British Almanac, London : Knight & Co., vol. 28, 1855, 96 p.
  • General Post Office, London, pp. 80-87 (link).
  • Licenses, Stamps [revenue], Assessed Taxes, pp. 90-95 (link).
(previous, next)

The Companion to the Almanac, London : Knight & Co., 1855, 268 + [24] p.
  • Stamp Duties, pp. 109-111 (link).
(previous, next)

Britain, Parliamentary Papers on the Post Office, Session 1854-55.   (previous, next)

Macdonald's Commercial Pocket Book for 1855, London.

S. Gille Heringa, Nederlandsch Jaarboekje der Posterijen voor 1855, Middelburg, 1855, 7th vol., 400 p.

Wet op de Brievenposterij, Wet van den 12den April 1850 (Staatsblad no. 15) tot vaststelling van het briefport en tot regeling der aangelegenheden van de brievenposterij, 's Gravenhage, 1855, 31 p.

Pliny Miles, Postal Reform, Its Urgent Necessity and Practicability, New York, 1855, 12 + 112 pp.

J. Holbrook, Ten Years Among the Mail Bags, or, Notes from the Diary of a Special Agent of the Post-Office Department, Philadelphia, 1855, 432 p.
Jan. 26
[resolutions], Journal of the Society of Arts, Jan. 26, 1855, vol. 3, p. 151 (link).
Jan. 31
First Report of The Postmaster General, on the Post Office, London, 1855, 101 p.
  • The series began at the suggestion of Frederic Hill, Rowland Hill's brother, who wrote the first 14 volumes (ref).  Or, it was suggested and directed by Viscount Canning, Postmaster-General from Jan. 1853 to Nov. 1855, as asserted in the report itself (ref, ref).
  • The Historical Summary of the Post Office on pp. 8-18 was written by Alfred Hill, Rowland Hill's nephew (ref, ref).
  • On p. 42 [image], notice is taken of which countries have issued postage stamps (23).  An appendix (pp. 86-99) lists them: Austria, Baden, Bavaria, Belgium, Brazil, Brunswick, Chile, Denmark, France, Frankfurt (for Hesse and Nassau), Hannover, Netherlands, Oldenburg, Portugal, Prussia, Sardinia, Saxony, Spain, Switzerland, Tuscany, U.S.A., Württemberg, with stamped envelopes issued in Prussia, Russia, but neither in Bremen, Ecuador, Hamburg, Lübeck, Naples, New Granada (Colombia), Peru, Sweden.  Rowland Hill's diary entry of Nov. 1854 has a similar list (ref).
(previous, next)
Feb. 1
Ramsey & Carmick contract : Letter from the Postmaster General, transmitting copy of a conditional mail contract; also copies of correspondence relative to the same, Washington, Feb. 1, 1855, 29 p.
Apr.
Post-Office Improvements, The New-York Quarterly, Apr. 1855, vol. 4, pp. 21-53 (link).
Apr. 14
The Chinese Postman, [William Charles Milne], Household Words, Apr. 14, 1855, vol. 11, pp. 259-261 (link).
  • The Chinese government post, the local posts, etc.
Jun. 23
Curiosities of London, [George A. Sala], Household Words, Jun. 23, 1855, vol. 11, pp. 495-502 (link).
  • A long anecdote about postal affairs in a small seaport town in the Levant, as introduction to a book review that has nothing to do with the posts or the Levant.
July 1
List of Post Offices in the United States with the Names of Postmasters, on the 1st of July 1855, also, the Principal Regulations of the Post Office Department, Washington : George S. Gideon, 1855, 145 + 48 + 4 p.

List of Post Offices in the United States, with the Names of Postmasters, on the 1st of July 1855, also, the Principal Regulations of the Post Office Department, Washington : J. Shillington, 1855, 145 + 48 + 4 p.

Aug.
Lord Dalhousie, Fraser's Magazine for Town and Country, London, Aug. 1855, vol. 52, pp. 123-135 (link).
  • pp. 130-131 discusses his time at the Post-Office in India.
Sep.
Bulletin mensuel de l'Administration des postes [de France], Paris : Imprimerie Nationale, 1855-1878.  (Nougaret 1883)
  • 1855-1878, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb32729505j/date  [BnF]
  • 1878-1936, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb32730626t/date  [BnF]
  • (1) Table alphabétique des matières contenues dans les ... volumes du Bulletin mensuel, cumulative classified index
    • Sep. 1855 - Dec. 1866, vol. 1-11, no. 1-136 (link).
    • not issued in 1867 or 1868
    • July 1868 - Apr. 1878, vol. 1-9, no. 1-109 (link).
  • (2) Table chronologique des sommaires des numéros ... du Bulletin mensuel, annual table of contents
  • Résumé analytique explicatif du Bulletin mensuel de l'Administration des postes, par A.E. Lepaige-Dorsenne, Noyon, 1857, 56 p.  (Nougaret 1885)
  • Continued as,
    • Bulletin mensuel des Postes et Télégraphes, 1878-1917
    • Bulletin des postes, des télégraphes et des téléphones, 1917-1928
    • Bulletin officiel des postes, des télégraphes et des téléphones, 1929
    • Bulletin officiel du Ministère des postes, télégraphes et téléphones, 1930-1948
    • Bulletin officiel des PTT, 1949-1990
    • Bulletin de La Poste, 1991-
year
vol.
no.
from http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb32729505j/date index
1855 (1)
1-4

Sep Oct Nov Dec

1856 (1)
5-16
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec (1)
(2)
1857 (2)
17-28
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec (1)
(2)
1858 (3)
29-40
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec (1)
(2)
1859 4
41-52
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec (1)
(2)
1860 5
53-64
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec (1)
(2)
1861 6
65-76
Jan
Jan
Feb
Feb
Mar
Mar
Apr
Apr
May
May
Jun
Jun
Jul
Jul
Aug
Aug
Sep
Sep
Oct
Oct
Nov
Nov
Dec (1)
(2)
1862 7
77-88
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec (1)
(2)
1863 8
89-100
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec (1)
(2)
1864 9
101-112
Jan Feb Mar